Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) automatic translate
The famous French painter Paul Cezanne was a pioneer of post-impressionism. Living and working with the most famous masters of Impressionism, being at the beginning of their journey under their influence, Cezanne, in search of his own style, went beyond his colleagues. Having learned the art of conveying miraculous states of nature, the artist went deep into the search for the formative foundations of everything around him and tried to learn the inner logic of things. The innovative approach of the painter did not allow him to gain deserved success and glory during his lifetime. Only time put everything in its place.
The future artist was born on January 19, 1839 in a small town in the south of France - Exce. Paul was the first-born in the family of the banker Louis - Auguste Cezanne. The father, who started with the production and sale of hats, and then opened his own bank, was a very powerful man, the whole family strictly obeyed his will. The mother of the artist, Anna - Elizabeth, gave birth to two more daughters - Maria and Rosa, but adored her first-born - Paul, and always tried to support him. The painter himself idolized his whole life and was afraid of his father.
Since childhood, having a craving for drawing, Paul Cezanne from five years painted the walls in the house with coal, already then creating very believable images. But his success was proud only of his mother, his father dreamed of seeing his son in the son. At the behest of his father, Paul in 1849 entered one of the best urban schools - the school of St. Joseph, from where, in 1852, moved to the sixth grade of the prestigious closed college Bourbon.
In college, the future famous artist Paul Cezanne meets the future famous writer - Emile Zola. Their friendship, in the end, played a significant role in the fate of the painter. And then, in his youth, it was Zola who discovered the magic world of books and poetry. Friends often walked, walking away from Aks, full of dreams of a beautiful future and pure love.
In 1855, a sixteen-year-old Paul graduated from college, having distinguished himself in writing poetry in French and Latin, and not realizing himself as an artist. After graduating from college, Cezanne goes to the Faculty of Law, on which, in categorical form, his father insisted. In parallel, in the evenings, Paul begins to study at the Eco School of Painting Joseph Zhibera. To the joy of the young man, the father did not see in this desire the son of anything reprehensible.
The newly opened city museum is the favorite place for a novice artist, where paintings were exhibited. Here, and in the classes at the school Zhibera Paul felt really happy, he had a dream to become an artist. But his father did not want to hear about such a turn in the fate of his only son, he still insisted on studying the young men of absolutely no interest to him right. The soul of the young Cezanne dreamed of Paris, where he was actively called by a friend in college - Emile Zola, who had moved to the French capital by that time and had tried his hand at literary creation. In the end, Paul Cezanne still dropped his studies on the law and got his father permission to go to Paris, where Zola urged him to start seriously studying painting.
In 1861 the young painter moves to the capital of France and is preparing to enter the Academy of Arts. Cezanne begins attending classes in the studio of Lewis, where he meets the future Impressionists Kamil Pissarro and Claude Monet, who studied the drawing, but already had their own formed vision for the development of pictorial art.
Pissarro immediately believed in Cezanne and predicted his success in the future. But the young artist from the province felt himself a stranger in the atmosphere of the capital’s workshop. The only friend he started there was his fellow countryman, the dwarf Achilles Amperer, who later wrote naked women with enthusiasm. Paul Cezanne was not very confident in his abilities and in his talent. At times it seemed to him that all his pursuits were meaningless and he needed to return to Aix to become his father’s successor. Probably, the artist was tormented by remorse and guilt at the parent, whose hopes he did not justify. These emotional torments and doubts, eventually led to the fact that the artist abandoned his favorite painting and in the same year 1861 returned to his native city.
In Exce, Paul began to work in the bank of Cezanne - the elder, who was incredibly pleased «the return of the prodigal son.» But the joy of both was short-lived. Paul could not live without painting for a long time and soon, from grief again began to attend the school Zhibera. After the house of the year and the endless conversations with his father, the young man again goes to Paris, this time, having made a decision, at whatever costs to enter the school at the Academy of Arts.
However, preparing for the exams, Cezanne suddenly discovered that he was completely alien to the art that he intended to study. Salon painting seemed unnecessary and empty to him. Plus, Paul once again began to doubt his own talent. He worked hard, but his discontent with himself only intensified. The result was another failure - the artist could not enter the school of painting.
In 1863, he visited the Salon, where he saw Eduard Mane’s scandalous work «Breakfast on the Grass» rejected by the public. This epoch-making work, thanks to which a real revolution took place in the art of that time, changed the vision of the world of Cezanne. It was he who introduced the young artist, as well as many of his peers, to a new understanding of art.
It was fatal for Cezanne to become acquainted with Friederik Basil, which happened in the same year. Basil brought him to the workshop of Glaire, from which came Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Auguste Renoir. Natural shyness, with at the same time stupid character, did not allow Cezanne to join the circle of future impressionists. As a result, the artist always kept himself apart, tried not to enter into discussions and conversations and did not participate in their meetings.
In 1864, having received the Salon’s refusal to accept his new works, Cezanne again dropped painting classes and again returned to Aix. True, and there he continues to write, unable to give up art classes. As a result, in six months, Cezanne again comes to Paris to offer his work for participation in the Salon, and again receives a refusal. Frustrated, almost lost faith in himself an artist, once again goes home with nothing.
In Exce, Paul devotes himself to a portrait. He works hard, but in the following year the artist’s works were not accepted by the Salon. Cezanne was completely desperate. He decided that his work would never be understood, but he did not want to write in a different way. Once again he came to the Salon and exhibited his works, he receives a mocking ovation, the public openly laughs at the painter.
But something good is happening at the Salon - someone acquaints the artist with Eduard Manet, who warmly responds to the creative search for young talent. Finally, having received a positive response, and even from his idol - Cezanne gets confidence in the right choice of a creative path. Returning to Aix, the painter becomes a kind of celebrity. They are beginning to recognize him on the street, local artists even try to copy his works, but the curiosity of the public was still rather hostile.
The Temptation of St. Anthony
The work «The Temptation of St. Anthony» (1867-1869, E.Burle Foundation, Zurich) refers to the early works of Cezanne. Using a classic religious plot, the artist depicts naked female bodies against the background of nature. Actually, the plot was just an excuse for openly writing nudity. Saint Anthony, who, in theory, was to be the central character of the picture, has a modest place at the left edge of the canvas, and even there, his figure almost merges with the background.
The inner struggle of human flesh and spirit can not be read in the person or in the pose of Saint Anthony. If the artist’s goal was to depict a Christian saint struggling with a sinful delusion, one could say that Cezanne’s work failed. But the painter did not aspire to this at all, he was only interested in women’s bodies.
Sharp contrasts of light and shade sculpt the volume, using powerful monumental forms. The very classical pyramidal composition of the central part of the work does not seem to have anything to do with the plot: the girls forming a vicious circle with their figures do not turn to St. Anthony at all. They exist independently of him. And only skilfully arranged figure group, located on the very edge of the canvas - Saint Anthony and temptress, who appeared before him in an exaggeratedly frank position, corresponds to the name of the work. This pair is built according to the classical principle of symmetry. The open posture of a woman demonstrating her body is contrasted with Antonia’s closed pose, hastily plugging coarse clothes.
Noteworthy is the fact that Cezanne did not portray beauties, he truly writes imperfect female bodies. By the way, they can be called beauties with great stretch: Cezanne is far from idealizing images, he simply writes - women. The influence of Impressionists is felt in the contrasting color shadows and reflexes of the surrounding green on the bodies of women. However, Cezanne uses the impression of Impressionism too much, almost bringing her to the point of absurdity, which brings his work closer to the works of the Fauves, who are yet to enter the world art scene.
A year later, in 1870, the artist acquainted with Hydrangea Fike, who becomes his constant model. Started in the same year, the war with Prussia, Cezanne, together with Fike, waited in Estaca (province of Provence). The painter carefully concealed from his family his connection with the model, otherwise the irate father could leave him without content, which was already barely enough for life. Only thanks to the meager assistance of his father, the artist, who was not understood and accepted by the public, managed to survive, so even when Grootensia’s son Paul was born in 1872, this most important event remained a mystery to all nearby Cezanne.
Soon the artist moves to Pontoise, where he lived Camille Pissarro - one of the few who believed in the potential of Cezanne. Support for a friend was very helpful. Impressionist Pissarro taught that you need to renounce your ego and write what you see by transferring to the canvas the real state of nature and not interpreting the world around you.
Here Cezanne is represented to Dr. Ferdinand Gachet, who was fond of painting and appreciated the «new» art. Gachet immediately stated that he considered Cezanne a great artist, and persuaded him to move to his house in Auvers. The enthusiastic perception of Gachet of Cezanne’s creativity inspired the painter with hope. Nobody has ever been interested in his work until now, and did not take them seriously. Here, the artist felt the genuine interest of the whole family of Gachet to his work and began to paint numerous landscapes, carried away by the impressionistic method of writing.
The painting «The House of the Hanged Man» (1873, the Musee d’Orsay, Paris), despite its gloomy name, is a sunny landscape. Masterful and unusual composition of the composition of the canvas is like a collage and is based on the combination of different plans.
The foreground introduces the viewer into the space of the picture. On it we see an unremarkable sandy slope, with stumps of wood in the lower left corner, placed here as a «starting point» for gradual advance into the interior. The second plan is occupied by a building with a dark roof and a grassy hill, behind which opens an unsightly «house of the hanged», as if protruding from the hill and representing the third plan of the picture. Behind him you can see the roof of the house located just below the house - the fourth plan, behind which the buildings with bright-red brick walls are depicted.
Following the artist, the viewer’s view from the lower left corner of the canvas descends the hillside, winding among the walls of buildings and terrain unevenness and thus opening the entire depth of space. And the more you look into this space, the more complex it appears. Cezanne conveyed the landscape exactly as he saw it in nature, not reconstructing with the help of perspective, so the orange houses seem standing right on the roof of the nearby building, and the sprawling trees in the upper left corner of the composition ludicrously pile directly above the «house of the hanged man.»
It was such compositional awkwardness, unthinkable for classical art, that enabled the artist to truthfully portray the world as he saw it. The painting «House and Tree» (1873-1874 years, private collection) resembles a fragment of the previous work on the composition structure: the same unfilled first plan, the white-stone building still grows straight from the hill, against which the branched tree flaunts. The tortuous trunk of which, like a crosses the plane of the wall, «creeping» along it, like a giant crack. This motif gives strange - exciting dramatic chords to the whole work, creating the impression of secrecy, which is stored in a house, as if hidden behind a trunk and branches of a tree.
The canvas «House of Doctor Gachet in the Over» (1873, the Musee d’Orsay, Paris) is distinguished by the alternation of the first, empty, and second - overly filled plans. So Cezanne creates a harmonious composition. Represented houses, which the artist densely molds one to another, as if closely on this provincial street. With a close look at the lines of their walls, it becomes obvious that they are far from equal. Cezanne does not pursue the clarity of the lines, on the contrary, he deliberately distorts them, as well as the sunlight illuminating the surfaces unevenly, depending on their texture and proximity to other objects.
Paul Cezanne writes only what he sees, not ennobling the surrounding, as a «proper» artist should do. Already here the artist’s gravitation towards simple monumental forms is manifested, which will become a distinctive feature of the individual style of the master. In the patronage of Camille Pissarro, Cezanne, in 1874, participates in the first exhibition of the Impressionists. Again, his work is mocked, however, his work «The House of the Hanged» is bought by a very large collector, which inspires hope in the artist’s exhausted misunderstanding.
The difficult life of Cezanne is well read in the self-portrait written in 1875 (the Musee d’Orsay, Paris). On it we see a markedly bald artist with an inquisitive and distrustful gaze. Paul Cezanne intuitively sought his way in art, which he walked alone, without meeting either approval or fame. Works of the master remained misunderstood, and he himself suffered from lack of demand. Only natural stubbornness and wilfulness helped the artist go forward, but constant ridicule and loneliness sometimes made him question his own vision of art. This is the reason for the distrust towards oneself and those around him, which shows in the eyes of the painter.
In the work «Love Fight» («Bacchanalia», 1875, Collection A. Harriman, New York), the artist refers to a mythological theme that allows a free image of the layout in the space of naked intertwining bodies. The expressive canvas gives the impression of an etude because of the underlined elaboration of the figures themselves.
A whole series of compositional techniques exacerbates the slightly oppressive impression of the fierce struggle of fierce-passionately clingy lovers: the trees are threateningly hanging, the low horizon highlights the huge sky, as if pressing against the heroes, even clouds that swirl with unusually sharply contoured shapes seem aggressive. The picture is built on the principle of theatrical scenery: cliffs of banks with trees growing on them serve as backstages. The absence of depth in the canvas, only emphasizes this effect.
Important for Cezanne meeting occurred in 1875, when Auguste Renoir introduced him to the avid collector Victor Choquet, who bought one of the paintings of the artist. From that moment, their long friendship began. In 1877, the painter creates «Portrait of Seated Victor Choquet» (Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus), in which we see the friend of the artist sitting in a magnificent armchair of the era of Louis XVI, in a relaxed home atmosphere.
On the walls are works of art that are part of the collection of Choquet. True, they do not enter into the «frame» entirely, but are given in fragmentary or only indicated by gilded frames. The artist does not tend to carefully reproduce the situation of the room or photographically accurately convey the features of the hero. He creates a generalized image of the collector, as an attentive and thoughtful person who is able to intuitively assess the artistic value of the work. The tall figure of Victor Choquet looks somewhat comical on an antique low chair, the upper edge of the canvas cuts his gray hair, and the legs of the model and the legs of the chair are written almost flush against the lower edge of the canvas. This creates the impression that the collector is cramped in the frames of the picture.
One of the many portraits of Hortense - «Madame Cezanne in a Red Armchair» (1877, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), which, incidentally, has not yet become the official wife of the artist, is unusually effective in the color palette. The red upholstery of the chair contrasts with the greenish-olive and blue colors of Hortense’s clothes and the wall behind her, and also excellently identifies the figure of the heroine. Work makes a monumental impression with maximum proximity of a young woman in the audience. canvas upper edge of the cut out a portion of her hair, and the lower - the hem of her skirt. Companion Cezanne life looks to the side and her hands with crossed fingers build a psychological barrier between the model and the viewer.
Very generic transmission characteristics of the terrain we see in the landscape «Mountains in the French Provence» (1878, National Museum Wales, Cardiff). Cezanne mentally parse objects on the individual components of their form, and then build them from their own reality. This technique will be further feature Constructivists.
Even more «constructive» are a product of «Houses in Provence near Estaca» (1879, National Gallery, Washington), «Montagne Sainte Victoire» (1886, National Gallery, Washington) and «Home in Provence» (1885, Museum of Art Herron, Indianapolis). Stones, hills, houses the walls appear to us in the form of generalized forms, passing through the prism of the analytical vision of Cezanne, which cuts off all unnecessary from them, leaving only the essence. All the outlines of mountains and fields on the web «Mountains in Provence» (1886-1890 years, the Tate Gallery, London) emphasized correct and are geometric.
The artist is actively working, but Salon continues to reject his work. Cezanne again ridiculed the third Impressionist exhibition. However, there is a connoisseur of art and the artist, regularly buys his work - a young petty officer who works at the stock exchange on behalf of Pol Gogen.
Having a solid career, Pol Sezann did not become an impressionist. His fascination with impressionistic image transfer and the nature of light and air was replaced by recognition of the need of speculative ordering of reality. The artist was not enough to see and play, he needed to see and share the hidden structure of the world.
vicissitudes of life
In 1886, there have been a number of events in the personal life of the painter. Firstly, Cezanne, almost against his will (as he was very much fascinated by the young maid in the house of his father), to marry Hortense, who, at the urging of family members, moved to Manor Cezanne in Provence. By this time, the artist’s son Paul had turned fourteen. Secondly, each youth, Cezanne, already famous writer Emile Zola publishes the novel «Creativity», in which the artist made a prototype of the main character. Roman showed great attitude to Zola Cezanne himself and his art, ending the suicide of the hero. Painter, took the gesture as loud announcement that the old one does not believe in the artist or his art. Thus ended the friendship between the two geniuses of the era - a great writer and a great artist. Third, the painter died despotic father, leaving him with a solid legacy.
Two years later, Cezanne creates a remarkable double portrait of his son Paul, dressed in a Harlequin costume, and his buddy, dressed in a Pierrot costume. Painting «Pierrot and Harlequin» (1888, National Museum of Fine Arts, A. S. Pushkina, Moscow) depicts a scene from the Shrovetide carnival holiday, passing directly in front of the post (and therefore the second title of the painting - «Mardigra», that is, «Maslenitsa»). On the canvas father openly admires his son. We see majestically handsome haughty fields, it is important coming from the wings, looking down at the viewer. In the background, detached Piero, bent over in a rather ridiculous pose, it seems helpful pazhom.
At the request of Hortense in 1888, Cezanne moved to Paris. A year later, the picture «House of the hanged man» painter, thanks to the projection of the collector Victor Choquet, was presented at the World Exhibition. But the work went unnoticed by the public, because it was placed too high.
Once again, the works of Cezanne did not see and did not want to see, and his talent was again left without recognition. The painter was already in his sixties, health problems forced him to permanently relocate, but he continued to write and even realized his youthful dream - to create their own work in the spirit of the works of «The Card Players» Louis Lenena, in his youth performing the great impression on him.
Painting «Card Players» (1892, Metropolitan Museum, New York) is a genre works depicting three young men over a favorite pastime. The figure of the observer in the background is cut on the shoulders of the top edge of the picture, thanks to it, in terms of the composite canvas seems unfinished. In an effort to clear and a clear expression of ideas, Cezanne wrote several versions of this work. The final version of the eponymous paintings created around the same time, striking completeness, conciseness and symmetry, to overcome the undue influence which, Cezanne cuts back right player.
Compositional and semantic center of the picture are the same - it is the hands of two seated men who like frame proudly standing bottle of wine. Product is devoid of a strict genre inherent in the previous embodiment. There is nothing superfluous, everything is very strict and very expressive. Players are completely absorbed his occupation, time seems to have stopped them, the whole world focused within the two figures, bowed to each other. Here and now in the scenario card signed the most important game for them becomes a kind of rite by which the painting itself becomes a sacred meaning. Perhaps, and a bottle of wine on a red tablecloth have a traditional symbolic significance of blood and of redemption.
Portrait «Man in the Red Waistcoat» (1888-1890 years, the Museum of Modern Art, New York) is particularly expressive, thanks to masterful use of color. Solemn combination of red and white flowers enhanced by an abundance of black, which makes the fabric extremely hero profile sharp and contrast. Cezanne does not avoid black, as many impressionists, but on the contrary, it introduces into the picture, as the shaping element. Hair young man merge with a black background draperies, this technique, like the master «gives» model space fabric at the same time giving it a kind of tragic resonance. The image portrayed over and holistic, not even despite the fact that in the picture there is a reality - no designation time or space, no hint of the type of activity the young man in a red vest.
Subject compositions and landscapes
All still life by Paul Cezanne recognized: at its simplest, a minimum set of items (a few fruits, porcelain vases, plates and cups), thrown over the table deliberately careless drapery with numerous folds and breaks, give the compositions and unique decorative expressiveness.
Painting «Still life with sugar bowl» (about 1888-1890 years, the State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg) is one of the most famous works by Cezanne. Here the painter abandons linear perspective, we do not see on the canvas a general point of vanishing planes.
We see a rectangular table top with carelessly thrown over her white draperies, lined with crockery and vegetables, from two points of view: from above and from the front, it is impossible for traditional art, which, since the days of the Renaissance, is working on the correct transfer to the two-dimensional plane of a three-dimensional canvas space.
Pol Sezann builds his still life painting in spite of the main law - term. Due to incorrect construction of space and perspective distortion becomes impossible to determine the distance from the wall to the table, or until rising above the background carved wooden legs, apparently, flower boxes. It also becomes an implicit relationship of parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the wall, table, floor and drawers. Devoid of depth and perspective space, built with the relative geometry of the observance, in common life with religious paintings, a style which has been created and approved to prospects, and it is often ignored.
Cezanne creates its own coordinate system, in which each object becomes self-sufficient in and of itself can be a «model» for the artist. «Excess», at first glance, flower boxes leg portion inserted a reason: this detail, at first, «holds» the whole composition in the upper right corner of the web and, secondly, a powerful coloristic accent generally cold color background the top of the picture, her brownish shades harmoniously resonate with brown top and the warm tones of ripe fruit. It is no accident the artist freely arranges items on the plane of the table, not combining them into a group - if we mentally remove any of them, the integrity of the composition can not be broken.
These features are typical for «Still Life with Apples and Oranges» (1895, Musee d’Orsay, Paris), «Still Life with a Curtain» (1899, The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg) and «Still Life with Eggplant» (1893- 1894 years, the Metropolitan Museum, New York). The first work is particularly evident role of tissue forming the space for its picturesque folds. It is filled with luxurious fabrics entire surface of the canvas. They make the prospect of unnecessary, in the absence of the usual coordinate system becomes three-dimensional space. Chaotic, at first glance, piling folds hiding Furnishings and facilities. It is not clear on what items are located. Due to this effect, an impression accentuated decoration and even theatrical, even more intensive treatment of the space plane.
In this still-life master of highly expressive works with color. Bright oriental fabrics, drapery fabrics reminiscent of the exotic romance of the great painting Ezhena Delakrua, who was an idol for Cezanne, create the background for the casually thrown over, dotted with snow-white wrinkled tablecloths and porcelain vases. the viewer’s attention is first drawn to this dazzling, hard-spot is designed to, enjoying transfer fabric shop, then concentrate bright fruits like glowing on a white background. That white skillfully arranges the whole composition. He does not give an eye to get lost in the holiday raznotsvete and wander across the canvas, bringing rigor into color palette and «collecting» the center of the composition.
Using color composition reached unity and «Still Life with eggplant». Due to the cold blue-purple scale painting looks amazing one piece, while keeping a strong contrast in the form of orange-red apples. The overall tone of the work flattens like a random arrangement of objects in a still life. If not for the color of ceramic vases, plates and bottle deputed too close to each other, would have looked ridiculous jumble of random things.
One of the evidences of internal repression artists variations may make it serve as a «Still Life with a Skull» (1898-1900 years, private collection). Similar works have appeared in the world of art from the Dutch and were treated to the works of «vanitas» ( «vanity»), symbolizing the transience of all earthly things. Stacked on each other’s mortal remains, they are close-up and occupy most of the surface of the canvas. The absence of the painting of other subjects and empty eye sockets, attracts the viewer’s eye, give rise to associations with the blasphemous portrait, not a still life.
While Cezanne was the main heir of his father, his beloved estate in Aix was sold without his family’s knowledge. Cezanne personal belongings were destroyed - and even older furniture that the artist remembered from childhood.
Frustrated by the loss of his home, the painter decides to buy the estate for himself, with a gloomy name Black Castle. Despite the fact that this intention was never implemented, Cezanne is committed to this place several of his landscapes - «Wood in rock caves in the Black Castle» (1900-1904 years, the National Gallery, London), as well as «The Mill on the River» ( 1900-1906 years, Marlborough Art gallery, London). The artist, as well as earlier, lays out all the forms into its component parts, but has been going on - in general, the style of the works are not closer to the post-impressionism, and by abstraction.
A favorite place for the creation of Paul Cezanne its landscapes became Montagne Sainte Victoire. He admired her magnificent beauty even in his early years. In the later period of the master repeatedly wrote types of this mountain, passing her beauty in different atmospheric conditions and under different lighting.
Already at the end of his life Cezanne conceived large-format multi-figure composition of naked bathers in the lap of nature. The artist has long wanted to write this painting, and there are several variants, created at different times. Due to the natural timidity and lack of funds, Cezanne never used the services of models. Therefore, to create your own composition of several naked female bodies even I asked one of his friends to get photos of the female nude. Perhaps this explains certain angularity of all the pieces created by the artist without relying on nature.
On canvas «Large Bathers» (about 1906, Museum of Art, Philadelphia) painter worked long and hard, carefully thinking through the layout of nude figures in space, meticulously verifying the rhythm of the body lines and outstretched arms, which together with bowed tree trunks form a harmonious semicircle. The work must have been a masterpiece, a kind of culmination of art of Cezanne. The artist hoped to find itself through harmony «roundness of the female breast and shoulder of the hills.» Unfortunately, we did not know what would eventually like to see his work the artist, because death interrupted his work.
World fame came too late
Pol Sezann was a loner, he walked his unbeaten path, almost no one understood and too many ridiculed. The artist did not want to play a simple nature, he sought to know its inner essence and convey this fundamental structure in the plane of the canvas. Master the art of creativity anticipated Cubism and abstraction depicting reality, refracted consciousness of the individual. Cezanne opened the world’s «new art» is completely constructed in his mind, so deeply distinctive and individual.
Only at the end of life recognition was gradually coming to the artist. At the end of 1880 the works of Cezanne became interested in the Parisian art dealer Ambruaz Vollar. First he studied the works of masters, kept an eye on him, was interested in the opinion of other artists. After much deliberation, he decided to find Cezanne Vollard to organize his first solo exhibition.
Which opened in 1895. The exhibition covers all periods of the artist, showing the evolution of his creative vision and opening all unknown Cezanne. Who came to support the artist Klod Mone, Edgar Degas, Per Ogyust Renuar and Camille Pissarro were amazed. Monet and Degas once bought a few pieces of old acquaintance, and the Parisian public was ready to accept the art of Cezanne.
After the first exhibition followed by a second. Vollard, though inexpensive, but steadily bought works by the artist. Two of his paintings were purchased by the National Gallery in Berlin. But only in 1900, the artist has finally won recognition at home, at Aix, putting an end to abuse and ridicule.
Gradually, thanks to the participation at the Paris International Exhibition, and other events dedicated to the art, Cezanne became famous all over the world, the artist’s name has become a legend. However, unfortunately, it is well-deserved recognition came to the painter with a long delay. October 22, 1906 Pol Sezann died. Only after his death, his paintings of the found its audience.
- Jubiläumsausstellung der Meereskünstlerin Catherine Arkhipova in der Galerie "Arka"
- Lecture ’Post-Impressionism. In search of individuality »
- Biblical subjects on the lithographs of Marc Chagall in the gallery "Art-Bank"
- "Surrealism and the livre d'artiste" in the department of personal collections of the Pushkin Museum. Pushkin
- Metamorphoses of Picasso