Alexei Kondratievich Savrasov (1830-1897) automatic translate
May 12, 1830 in the family of a successful merchant of haberdashery goods and merchant of the second guild of Kondratia Artemievich Sovrasov was born the son of Alexei, who was destined to become one of the main founders of the Russian landscape school. The boy was baptized in the church of the Great Martyr Nikita on the Yauza River. Then the Sovrasovs lived most of the time in Zamoskvorechye - then in Yakimanka, then in Goncharnaya Sloboda, then at the Kaluga Outpost, or even on Pyatnitskaya Street. The family often moved, depending on how the affairs of Kondratiy Artemyevitch were going. From early childhood, Alexei had to help his father in everything. But the business did not drown out the natural passion, namely the craving for drawing.
Open gallery: Pictures of Alexey Savrasov
Nowhere to learn, the boy by the age of twelve independently learned to draw very well, wrote watercolors and gouache fashion at that time unpretentious romantic sketches. Something like various variants of the «eruption of Vesuvius» or «sea storms», which then were bought up for a pittance by street lotots, who later resold them. Father Sovrasov was sure that his son’s interest in painting was worthless fun that would not bring him anything good. He, like any head of the family, who started his business, dreamed that his son would become the continuer of his business. While the poor boy dreamed of only one thing - to draw.
Meanwhile, in Moscow, a significant event occurred - in 1843 the Moscow School of Painting and Sculpture officially opened its doors. The new educational institution was headed by General MF Orlov, who was once friendly with many Decembrists. Fortunately, unlike the pompous Petersburg Academy of Arts, where the Emperor himself oversaw the introductory tests of the contestants, and even the educational process of the students, a board of trustees was formed in the Moscow school, formed from people of different classes. It was thanks to this approach that both the offspring of aristocrats and the children of serfs could study in MUZHV.
Just a year later, Alexei Sovrasov, against his father’s will entered a new school. Teachers immediately drew attention to a talented teenager, but he soon had to quit school, as his mother Praskovya Nikiforovna fell seriously ill with consumption. Now only the boy who had spread his wings had to spend all his time in his father’s shop. However, Alexey did not abandon painting, he persisted in painting at night, for which he was driven out by a stern father with all his household from the warm part of the house to a windswept attic. But there, in this cold room, his friends could come, thanks to which the work of a young talent fell to the teacher Karlu Rabus who taught at MUZHV.
Rabus, who was engaged in «Vidopisanie» - so called then landscape painting - gravitated towards romanticism, but also was extremely interested in the realistic direction in art. And the work of young Alexei just combined romantic views and a very realistic manner of writing. In order for a capable young man who, four years ago, left his studies at the request of his father, again could continue to visit MUZHV, Rabus invited to the house of merchant Sovrasov, Major-General Luzhin, the former chief policeman of Moscow, a man of intelligent, subtly understanding and loving art. Under the influence of an important Moscow official, Kondraty Artemyevitch finally allowed his son to attend the school. In the end, in 1848, Alexei Sovrasov again found himself in the landscape class of MUZHV.
Disclosure of talent
From the very beginning, Sovrasov was extremely fortunate with the teacher. Not only that it was thanks to Rabus that he returned to the teaching of painting, so a highly educated teacher was able to give the young artist a lot of priceless knowledge, not provided for by the school program.
Karl Rabus taught his students the technique of drawing and painting, and also acquainted them with the basics of aesthetics and the theory of paints, relying on the treatises of Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Leonardo da Vinci himself. His students not only studied and copied the best examples of classical European fine arts, but also devoted a lot of time to working with nature. Rabus repeatedly told his students that the most important thing for a good landscape painter is to be able to «see» (feel) nature. Possessing an extraordinary gift of persuasion, the teacher tried to introduce novice artists to understanding the high tasks of art in general, and painting in particular.
Less than a year later, Alexei Sovrasov was already recognized by the Moscow Art Society as one of the best students of MUZHV. Sketches of the young artist with the views of Vorobyovy Gory were struck by the school’s board of trustees, and his copies of Aivazovsky’s paintings so appealed to patron IV Likhachev that he paid Alexei a creative trip to Ukraine.
Returning to Moscow, Sovrasov demonstrated to his teachers the landscapes he had made, after which, he was talked about as the hope of Russian art. A distinctive feature of the style of Sovrasov, perfectly mastered by the realistic technique of writing, was a harmonious plastic beginning in the re-creation of poetic images of nature on canvas. All the «southern» works of the talented painter were distinguished by the novelty, courage of creative thought, professionalism and unusual composition of the composition. The painting «The Ukrainian Landscape» (1849, the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) is somewhat reminiscent of the «Italian species» that became very popular at that time, but already in it is felt the attentiveness and love of Sovrasov to his native nature.
The artist not only captured a beautiful romantic sunset over peasant houses and hills covered with greenery, but also conveyed, although slightly idealized, the tangible warmth and tranquility of the Ukrainian evening with its pink and golden flashes of light.
Paintings «The Stone in the Woods at Razliv» (State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) and «View of the Kremlin in inclement weather» (State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), written one after another in 1850 and 1851 respectively, so amazed the professors of the school that they decided to hand over to Sovrasov, who studied in MUZHV for less than two years, the title of «non-class artist.» A modest and shy young man managed to persuade academics of fine arts to mature in his mastery and the possibility of completing his studies at the age of only twenty.
The canvas «Stone in the Woods at Razliv» is a somewhat unusual landscape, which makes an impression of an illustration of some Russian folk tale. The work is divided into two parts. The lower part shows us an ominous fracture of the soil, protruding forward. In it we see intertwining rhizomes of trees and a massive cracked stone sinking deep into the earth. In the upper part of the canvas, against the background of a bright blue sky and bent branches of trees, on a huge boulder figures of two teenagers can be seen, with fear and delight gazing down. The work conveys a genuine youthful interest in the secrets of nature and the thirst for knowledge of the surrounding world.
The second work, «View of the Kremlin in inclement weather» is filled with a completely different atmosphere. The sky drawn by ragged clouds, the dark cloud coming from the right and the tree standing in the center of the canvas bending under the gusts of a strong wind - all together not only anticipates the storm, but also expresses the almost mystical, enthusiastic feelings experienced by a man looking at the raging elements.
The effects of contrast lighting, specially created by the author in the landscape, only emphasize the firmness of the Moscow Kremlin, which, despite the dramatic nature of what is happening around, confidently and serenely white in the distance.
These two works did not for nothing make such a strong impression on the Moscow audience. They fully revealed the inherent ability of the painter to understand poetic and romantic images of nature, seen simply and artlessly, but conveyed realistically, truthfully and very emotionally. Aspiring to master the technique of landscape as best as possible, which at that time remained «on the sidelines» of great art, Alexei Sovrasov was very fond of sketching the most diverse hidden corners and neighborhoods of his native city.
After graduating from the Moscow School, Sovrasov, at the invitation of patron ID Luzhin, who became his patron, was poisoned for the summer in his estate, located in Kuzminki, near Moscow, near the station Vlaherna. There, the artist creates several sketches that differ in the beauty and accuracy of the transmission of illumination of nature in the evening.
A year later, the artist again went to Ukraine, where, under the impression of the splendor of the southern steppes, creates several landscapes.
An example of the results of this trip can serve as the work «View of Kiev from the Dnieper to the Pechersk Lavra» (1852, private collection, St. Petersburg). Despite the still existing influence of the «Italian motives» and the apparent similarity of the composition with the canvas «View of the Kremlin in inclement weather,» the work is remarkably peaceful. Sovrasov skillfully conveyed the atmosphere of relaxed pre-vacations, highlighting it with a bluish shroud of light mist descending to the Ukrainian steppe, cooling from the summer heat, and the city in the distance. Cloth, like all the works of the artist of this period, are characterized by a smooth pattern, tenderness of the color system and transparent chiaroscuro. Critics with enthusiasm noted the freshness of the fine techniques of the master, in which, apart from romanticism, there was an objective view not only of nature, but also of the life of peasants whose figures began to appear, occasionally, in his paintings.
Another unexpected turn in the fate of a talented landscape painter happened in 1854, when the best of his works were exhibited at the exhibition of graduates and undergraduates of MUZHV. Among the guests of honor, invited to the grand opening, was the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, who at that time held the post of president of the Petersburg Academy of Arts. She closely followed all the phenomena in Russian art. Maria Nikolaevna was very interested in the cycle of works by a young painter, in which he depicted the Ukrainian landscape in different light.
The series included the painting «Steppe in the Afternoon» (1852, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg), in which Sovrasov perfectly conveyed the sensation of steppe heat. The grass is scorched by the sun and the stream begins to dry up, as if they are greeting the audience with fervor. In the cloudless sky a lone bird soars, and below, on the ground, two partridges try to find a rest from the midday heat in the withered steppe grass.
Unusual sound gives an amazing glow to the work, which comes from this plain, seemingly dull landscape. It is thanks to him, the picture, filled with a fascination of pleasure and a sense of poetic delight, does not resemble either the already bored Italian audience, nor the other works of Russian artists overflowing with romanticism.
The second work of the series, especially marked by the Grand Duchess was the painting «Steppe with Chumak in the Evening» (1854, State Museum Association «Art Culture of the Russian North», Arkhangelsk). The piercing, yellow-red haze of the sunset subdued the princess’s heart, and Maria Nikolaevna immediately bought the work.
Such attention was a surprise, both for teachers and for students of MUZHV. At that time, the members of the imperial family acquired the work of only exceptionally talented graduates and eminent masters from the Petersburg Academy of Arts. Therefore, such a success to the unknown Sovrasov, who has the diploma of the teacher of drawing MUZHV, greatly surprised the Moscow society.
But that was not all. The princess wished to get acquainted personally with the painter and even invited him to his own capital residence Sergeevka, located between Peterhof and Oranienbaum. The official reason for the visit was an opportunity for a young artist to quietly write «species from nature.» This was a real victory for Sovrasov, but she had her own price - he quickly lost many friends, envying his success. But it was a small payment for the opportunity to loudly declare themselves in the Russian artistic environment, and at the same time, to capture the cold north-west nature.
Academy of Arts
His acquaintance with the capital of a young artist began with an inspection of all major museums, as well as private collections of paintings. Sovrasov visited the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, attended lectures of the best professors and met many masters.
After that, the artist began to work and out of his hands began to go out the cycles of pencil drawings from nature, which can be judged on his highest professional skill in arranging the composition and amazing plasticity in the transfer of forms. The canvas «View in the vicinity of Oranienbaum» (1854, the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), painted by the artist at the dacha of Princess Mary Nikolaevna, demonstrates the author’s ability to very accurately divide the plans. In the central part of the canvas, we see a glade filled with bright sun, which is surrounded on one side by autumn trees and boulders, overgrown with moss, and on the other side we have a view of the sea. A lone oak stands against the background of the clear sky, spreading its branches, the foliage on which is permeated with the sun. Cold daylight falls on the mossy boulders near the mirror surface of the puddle and the brown grass. In the depths of the glade, the light figure of the seated woman is hardly visible. Sovrasov very picturesquely conveys the vastness of space and the charm of being in its severe manifestations. Collector and patron Pavel Tretyakov purchased this painting in 1858 for his collection, which he then gave his homeland.
During this period Sovrasov worked very hard. All the works created at St. Petersburg, he submitted to the Academy of Arts in October 1854 to compete for the title of academician. Talent and skill of the artist immediately attracted the attention of the artistic community of the capital. Painter began to receive expensive orders for copies of paintings by Aivazovsky, as well as Western masters of the Romantic era, which he performed in a solemn and lush, beloved by the local aristocracy in an emphatically decorative manner. Perhaps, Sovrasov could become a court painter, but for some reason, having received the title of academician, he hurried back to Moscow.
The long-awaited recognition
Returning to his native city, the artist begins to participate in many exhibitions, his paintings are hotly met by both spectators and critics. Although the major customers have not appeared here.
The painting «The Summer Landscape with Oaks» (1855, the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) serves as an example of a successful combination by the painter of the previously found motifs surrounded by trees and the «ring» of the scorched steppe. The canvas is written in a romantic spirit and expresses a sincere admiration for nature.
When creating the work, Savrasov used full-scale sketches that helped the workshop transmit the impression of the opening space, the cold cloudy sky, striving beyond the horizon and reflected on the surface of the puddle in the foreground.
One of the reasons for the return of the artist to Moscow may have been the desire to create a family. Soon after his arrival, the artist made the offer of the hand and heart to the elder sister of his former classmate and good friend Konstantin Hertz.
Elected Adelaide, twenty-eight year old academician of painting, was the daughter of the Swedish Swede Karl Karlovich Hertz, one of the city’s most educated people, the founder of the Department of Art History at the Moscow University, a professor and an archaeologist.
Being four years older than the bridegroom, this powerful and intelligent woman sought independence from her youth and by that time she was actively earning her living by frequent lessons. She accepted the offer of the artist.
After the death of Karl Rabus, who taught Sovrasov the basics of painting, the board of trustees of MUZHV invited the newly married painter to the post of head of the landscape class in the school, which he graduated only seven years ago.
The young family immediately got an apartment at the school, and the new teacher enthusiastically began to perform his duties. The first thing that Sovrasov did in his new workplace - he demanded his own studio for the landscape class, in which his students could paint pictures of sketches made by them earlier from nature. Working on his own works in the presence of students, he gave them the opportunity to better grasp the essence of his method. Somewhere at this time, the painter slightly changes his surname. He begins to sign his work «Savrasov», replacing the first open «o» with the more familiar Moscow rumor «a».
The Age of Change
«The Age of Reform», which occurred in the country immediately after the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War and the death of Emperor Nicholas I, opened a new stage in the artist’s work. In painting, as in literature, there was a desire for an honest reflection of Russian reality and the plight of the impoverished peasantry. Many educated and intelligent people have experienced the need for the public «repentance» for the unjust exploitation of man by man. Household realistic genre has become particularly relevant in the visual arts. He was called to criticize the foundations of modern Russia, first and foremost - a wholesale ignorance and shameful for a civilized man serfdom.
Unusually sharp development and completeness of the statements received critical realism in the works brilliantly completed by the time his studies in MUZHV, Vasily Perov, write complex multi-figure compositions. Changed attitude to the image and perception of nature, which becomes more household. Initially, the characteristic of the changed landscape served as a backdrop for paintings exclusively on rural themes. Only after almost ten years, nature had its own meaning and sound, in its close connection with the fate of the Russian people.
These processes could not affect the work and social activities Savrasov. Painter went on to write more exalted - poetic paintings depicting nature in the romantic spirit, but now in his paintings all the more frequent rural scenes. For example, the work «Summer Landscape with a Mill» (1859, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), made in soft colors, very realistic transfers the heat of a summer evening on the edge of the forest before lined up a number of mills. Bronze shades, which are painted in the grass and trees of golden-pink sunset, landscape lends peaceful sound.
And to some mute hill pattern, the artist has depicted the current over the lazy river, overgrown with reeds and water lilies, a dilapidated wooden bridge. A lonely figure of a woman in peasant clothes sent from the river to the mill. And before her stretched boundless steppe at sunset. In this southern rural landscape is still much sound idyllic notok, which was so difficult to leave the romantic artist.
The era of change continued, and in early 1860 in the cultural life of Moscow was a very prominent role to play recreated Moscow Society of Art Lovers (MOLH). Honorary post of secretary of the company took the most famous at that time critic Karl Gerts, who, regardless of the desire of his daughter and her husband live completely independently, without taking help from parents, still attracted to his son-in operations of the organization he headed.
At that time, Savrasov, already a renowned painter and academician of the Arts, has never had the opportunity to go abroad. And so, in 1862, the Moscow Society of Art Lovers sent the painter to the opening of the World Exhibition of achievements in London.
Visiting England, France, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, Alexei Savrasov was well acquainted with contemporary Western European art. Back home, the master made a detailed report to MOLH, which described in detail the current state of the landscape genre in European countries, lamenting the scarcity of Russian painting represented abroad. He also brought back from a trip several of his own works with the types of landscapes in Europe which produced a lasting impression on him.
In this series of papers he entered cardboard «view in the Swiss Alps (Mount Ruhen Small)» (1862, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg). In this work Savrasov managed to convincingly show the space and depth of the gorge, a huge height of the snow-covered peak and even the clear mountain air.
The second great work was a picture of «Swiss Villa» (1862, private collection, Moscow), written in bluish tones, with high fir trees and snow-capped mountain peaks. And, perhaps, the most remarkable in the cycle of work - «Lake in Switzerland tori» (1866, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). Here, the artist managed to convey an unusually plausible cold and damp atmosphere of an alpine lake.
All European landscapes show a detailed study of an artist of similar subjects in Western painting. At the same time, Savrasov avoided formulaic pathos in the transfer of the majestic mountain landscape, showing a calm and authentic style of writing. Painter remains true once found the reception. «Entrance» in his paintings still are huge stones and boulders, puddles and streams located in the foreground of the picture.
The search for new paths
After returning from abroad Alexei Savrasov began to write their own teaching. In it, he tried to convey the importance of the subtle feeling of mother nature, the poetic relationship to the land, is inextricably linked with the fate of the Russian people. Textbook for students MUZhViZ artist created together with her colleague - Vasiliem Pukirevym. In it are set out in detail the technique of images of peasant villages and huts necessary painters who want to create paintings native Russian nature.
In 1869, the textbook was published, at a time when the need for «nation» in Russian painting was especially acute. Nevertheless, he Savrasov long enough to find its own way of expressing the popular sentiment by natural motifs. Until the end of the 1860s, his work became clearly stand out from the earlier work. For example, in the film «rustic look» (1867, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) native environment with flowering gardens and trees spring foliage of birch trees, is shown filled with lyricism and sadness lurking.
In the foreground there are numerous paintings hives near the flowering fruit garden and fenced palisade hut. Much of the work takes a long-range plan with broad meadows, river running off into the distance and a lot of peasant houses, thatched. Among this bright idyll stands out sad hunched figure beekeeper - old man sitting in the smoking fire.
But this period of light and transparent colors in painting at Savrasova quickly ended, due to the fact that the Russian reality is not supposed cheerful happiness in the bleak and beggarly life of the common people, full of toil. Painting «Elk Island in Sokolniki» (1869, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) have splash we bleak and cold mood. Overcast sky and deep muddy puddles on the field in which grazing cows, can not refresh even the pine forest in the background. This extremely realistic work with detailed study of each branch bushes, grass, and even bumps in the foreground marked the birth in the domestic painting landscape, capable of reliably and skillfully through the image of the true natural beauty of central Russia, to show all the bitterness and hopelessness of life most of the population of our countries.
artworks filled with anxiety Bloody Sunset above the roofs of village huts, such as the «Evening» (late 1860s - early 1870s, the State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), and the prevailing cold tones that convey the hopelessness and sad feeling of loneliness as, for example, the product of «Autumn landscape with swampy river under the moon» (1871, State Tretyakov gallery, Moscow). And despite the fact that the time for the artist was the most that neither is good.
The magnificence of the Volga landscapes
In the late 60-ies Savrasov, supports numerous friendships with the St. Petersburg artists, he founded the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions (TPHV). Whose founders are: Ge - a professor of the Imperial Academy of Arts, academician I.Kramskoy Professor K. Makovsky, cool artist G. Meat eaters, and a number of other painters. The organization’s goal was to bring your art of painting to the common people. Very soon, the place of honor society member of the board, near Savrasov, took and V. Perov.
In the summer of 1870, during a vacation in your own school, the artist went with his family to the Volga. Forms of the great Russian river because he was struck by that when he returned to Moscow in the autumn, Savrasov immediately took on vacation until next spring and moved to Yaroslavl, where he made a large apartment, probably due to more orders from Pavel Tretyakov. There, the artist begins to work actively, feeling a huge upswing. But here it catches up with personal tragedy.
And so it is extremely rare in his family life, peace and harmony were once again destroyed by the death of the third child and the serious illness of his wife, Sofi Karlovny. Because of these events, a painter for a long time could not deliver the Tretyakov ordered them to work, being tied to the bed of his wife. Distressed artist has found an outlet only gradually awakening spring nature beautiful Volga region.
Crowded personal experiences and inspiration, Savrasov wrote a series of amazingly beautiful sketches, which later became the basis for his most important paintings. Work «The Rooks Have Arrived» (1871, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) portrays the humble landscape familiar to the smallest details of any resident of central Russia, and at the same time, filled with poetry and high lyricism.
The soul and the pain of the Russian people clearly felt under overcast and dank outside the edge of a sleepy provincial town. In the foreground shows a group of curved birch, the branches of which equips its massive socket rooks had flown. They were among the gray log huts towering belfry of a rural church. Background picture are vast fields covered with melting snow. Through a transparent and moist air show through soft slanting rays of the spring sun still cold. Light shade of birch trees are on the slightly darkened, but still pure white snow. Only a barely noticeable pink and golden reflections of the sun on the hill near the fence, we can guess that the landscape was captured in the sunset period.
Soft, finely developed concise coloring cloth, which within the same color almost unnoticeable alternating cold and warm colors, extremely reliably conveys the state of nature, just started to wake up from a long winter sleep, thanks to the breezes of the warm wind. The work is not only demonstrates the high skill of the artist in the poetic landscape of everyday expression, but also expresses a surprising state of unity of the Russian people and the nature of the country.
Master did not immediately presented his work to the public. He’s still working on it for some time after his arrival in Moscow, and only at the end of 1871 he exhibited at the first exhibition TPHV. Initially, the work caused some confusion spectators, but the painter colleagues immediately discern in it something unique and new, which became for them a revelation. Not surprisingly, Pavel Tretyakov, perfectly versed in the art, immediately bought the work ahead of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, who was very disappointed to learn that she already got a copy of the web.
Since that time, Savrasov always combined teaching in Moscow with regular trips to the Volga. This lasted until 1875. On the banks of the great Russian river, he created sketches and sketches of their future creations, which culminated in its landscape workshop MUZhViZ. After the success of «Rooks» the artist had a hard time, fortunately, in the end of 1871 to lead the full-scale class in the school invited a talented painter, a brilliant teacher and the only devoted friend Savrasov - Perova. That he supported the master, when he grieved common in artistic circles of the opinion that he did not create anything more worthwhile, in addition to its now famous paintings.
It was insulting and unfair, because out of the great landscape painter brush left a number of excellent works. In them, he not only made a romantic perception of the nature of their native land, but also faithfully reproduces deep understanding of real life.
An example would be a cold and beautiful «Winter Landscape» (1871, Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art), combining the incredible - a fantastic and cozy, with a bitter truth and a sense of responsibility for what is happening. Another picture of this period - «Caves Monastery near Nizhny Novgorod» (1871, Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art) perfectly conveys the perspective of a provincial town, situated at the foot of a hill with a magnificent view. This work is anticipated all the famous Volga landscapes Levitan, will soon begin training Alexei Savrasov in 1873.
Alone in the artist’s work is worth «Fishermen on the Volga» (1872, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). In rare master for compositions with exceptionally realistic written characters traced influence Perova. Here the landscape painter Savrasov has gone very well portrait characteristic of his characters - old man made wise by experience and a gray-haired, and his young team-mate, whom he teaches.
It Savrasov - teacher training and is credited with inspiring their students, among them besides Levitan, Korovin brothers, Mikhail Nesterov, S. Svetoslavsky and others. The artist not only managed to instill in students the inner freedom and love for the native image spaces, but also encouraged them in moments of frustration. He taught the young generation to fill his works a sense of unity with nature. The highest value of the painter gave no manner of writing, which can and should learn, but the ability to see the true beauty in the ordinary. It is this talent that gives a man of God, determined, according Savrasov, the talent of the artist.
For example, in the web «Sukharev Tower» (1872, State Historical Museum, Moscow), the leading role given is not destroyed now monument of history and architecture of the capital, and lyrical nature of the cold of the city with its frosty trees and snow-covered wooden houses. And in the frosty atmosphere of the author managed to convey so typical for Moscow proud gust up - it symbolizes vysyaschiysya spire of red and white tower stands out against the mauve late-afternoon sky.
Despite the large number of wonderful winter landscapes, more than anything else the artist loved the spring, with its gentle sun, melted snow and gentle just swollen buds on the bushes and trees.
Painting «Spring Day» (1873, The Vladimir-Suzdal History, Architecture and Art Museum-Reserve) shows us the dirt road eroded by melt water and rickety fence, on which sit the curious chickens. The roofs of peasant houses and branches of trees, already bared from under the snow came down. Touching attention to the life of nature, coupled with the amazing ability to transmit unsophisticated, naive everyday life of the people, complete with the slightest hints of spring mood perfectly characterize the painter himself, as a man of fine mental organization, fully immersed solely in the creativity and vision of the world.
Perhaps it is this preoccupation with the creative life and influenced the artist’s problems in his personal life. According to the testimony of Vera’s daughter, Savrasov family has always lived in poverty, in spite of the situation Alekseya Kondratevicha, the former is not only famous painter, but also an academician. The artist never asked for anything for himself nor academic or uchilishchnogo leadership nor patrons and never hold on the lucrative part-time tutor in the noble houses of paintings, because of its directness. Overbearing Sophia Karlovna tried to influence her spouse that he chose only those scenes that, just like the public and attract attention.
Under the influence of his wife in 1873, Savrasov wrote a number of lofty and light fabrics, such as «View of the Moscow Kremlin. Spring «(The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg) and» By the end of the summer on the Volga «(State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). The works were designed to convey a sense of the joy of labor.
However, more indicative it was the painting «Country Road» (1873, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), which reflected the heavy state of mind of the painter. Along the rain-drenched impassable muddy tract are green trees, the branches of which bristle up, recalling a strange way the roots, so that the trees themselves seem to be inverted. Gloomy summer landscape clearly conveyed the feelings of loneliness and aching melancholy seized Savrasov. Perhaps, in this period, in the soul of the artist’s psychological breakdown occurred, which subsequently ruined his life.
Road to nowhere
According to surviving records Levitan, a former favorite pupil of the landscape, Savrasov felt like a stranger in his own family. Close constantly accused the artist of unwillingness to pursue profitable orders and privileges. He spoke little to anyone, he is constantly in a state of depression and began to drink heavily. Even despite the fact that the painter has worked tirelessly to create a huge number of magnificent landscapes and sketches of his work criticized even by those critics and art historians, who keenly followed all the trends in Russian art, continuing the habit welcome only in the subjects of «national».
A talented painter suffered from a lack of understanding, he tried very hard to work it became clear to the public. Masterfully written painting «On the Volga» (1875, National Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan), «The House in the province. Spring «(1878, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow) and» Rainbow «(1875, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg), as if lit sincere joy and comfort of the simple rural life, filling the soul sublime sense of unity of the Russian peasant with his native land. But even in the rare moments of recognition and relative prosperity Alexei Savrasov was well aware of all the fragility of their position. Being an excellent teacher, he refused to teach the eldest daughter Vera inherited his extraordinary talent for painting. Alex Kondratievich was sure that any artist is doomed to a miserable existence and hungry, even with talent. These thoughts led to a serious abuse of alcohol, and since 1876 the painter became catastrophically losing his sight.
Sophia Karlovna, tired of half-starved existence, depression and alcoholism wife, took her children and left for St. Petersburg to his sister. From that moment, the artist’s life rolled downhill.
Headed MUZhViZ Perov, Savrasov sincerely worry about how it could cover the absence on service. He even perfectly reflected the inner life in the tragedy of landscape «Portrait of the Artist A. K. Savrasova» (1878, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). The web is written in black and warm brown tones with deep shadows. Savrasov shown sitting half-turned, half of his face is in shadow, because of what his face looks particularly severe. Work beautifully conveys and physical strength, and heavy spiritual split, vulnerability and lack of protection of the artist.
In spite of all the drama of its existence, the brilliant landscape continued to work. In 1870 he creates a very beautiful, like a magical «winter landscape. Rime «(Voronezh Regional Art Museum. I. N. Kramskogo). Faint blue shadows stretch of dazzling white snow. Shimmering blue-blue scale glittering under sunlight shining ice timber Sparktouched transmits magic charm, which is combined with the tale reality. Before Savrasova no one is so simple and at the same time did not write the romantic nature of Russian winter.
Loneliness and poverty
Many artists of those years in addition engaged in the creation of scenery for theaters, Savrasov was also part of their ranks. It was one of his hobbies, he was happy to create realistic and imaginative backdrops. For example, it is known that the artist worked on the design of the opera productions of Mikhail Glinka «Life for the Tsar».
Save the sketch artist for the scenery to the stage at the Ipatiev Monastery. Jobs «Ipatiev Monastery in the Winter Night» (1876, The Theater museum to them. L. A. Bahrushina, Moscow) perfectly conveys the atmosphere of the current disaster looming at home, using masterfully written out snow storm turbulence erupted. Bristling with spiers Monastery represents strength and power, the opposition approaching enemies. There is the painting «Cathedral Square in the Moscow Kremlin at Night» (1878, private collection, Moscow), which also created the sketch of scenery the same opera. Unfortunately, the evidence as to whether this performance took place with decorations Savrasov at the Bolshoi Theater, has survived.
Soon already unhappy artist descended a new trouble - broke the last thread linking him to his wife and daughters - in 1879 died the brother of his wife, the painter Konstantin Karlovich Hertz. This event caused an even greater acceleration of heavy drinking Alekseya Savrasova. His students remained for weeks without a favorite teacher, and a loyal friend Perov could no longer cover up the master, so how hard he fell ill.
Misfortune fell on the artist, as a horn of plenty. The ninth exhibition of the Wanderers, the movement of which at one time organized itself Savrasov, brought new disappointments. All wizard been criticized, inflicting a deep wound the soul of the painter. Since that time, the artist decided not to participate in the activities of the Partnership. But this «black bar» in the artist’s life is not over, in 1882 he died of tuberculosis each painter Vasily Perov. No one else was to cover binges and absences head of landscape workshop before the School Board of Trustees.
Savrasov was dismissed from MUZhViZ. He was even deprived the government flat provided to him as a teacher of the educational institution. The artist had no other housing, and fifty-two talented and renowned academician of painting proved to be literally thrown out into the street. Untidy and ill Savrasov periodically move from nochlezhek in a rooming house and back. He was interrupted by the sale of paintings, written almost blindly with a trembling hand. Now he was getting for them even less than selling a child his «volcanic eruption» hawkers.
However, sometimes, the artist recalled philanthropist Pavel Tretyakov, who helped him financially, or former colleagues in the college. On such days Savrasov wrote, despite his blindness, continuing to surprise the highest level of skill and the immensity of his talent.
An example of his later paintings can serve as a canvas «Spring» (1883, Saratov State Art Museum. A. N. Radischeva). Under the golden-pink sunset depicted has not melted the sparkling ice of the pond and settled on the vast field of snow drifts, which clearly convey a poetic impression of the cold beauty of early spring.
Many artists who have met Savrasov at the end of his life miserable in the area «bottom» of Moscow - Khitrova market, or in cheap taverns, saw only its degradation and disintegration of personality. Levitan alone until the end of remaining loyal to his beloved teacher, still maintained a relationship with him, showed the work and getting good advice wizard. But even then, exhausted to fight with fate, the sick and abandoned painter appreciated only one in my life - painting. He wandered through the dark back streets of Moscow in torn and dirty clothes, but on his neck showed off a bright red bow. The artist has always carried with him his brushes and paint, despite the fact that all the property of the famous academician has long passed into the junk shop and baryg. Sometimes the master had to sleep on the street, but if all of a sudden it at least for a short time appeared a roof over his head and a piece of canvas in his hands, he immediately took up the brush and begins to happen.
An unexpected meeting occurred in the last years of the painter. Evdokiya Mihaylovna Morgunova sheltered master bore him two children and a little weaned from alcohol. Savrasov continued to operate and has reached unprecedented heights in the schedule. In 1894 he even published an album of their own drawings, for which the Academy of Arts master allocated assistance in the amount of one hundred rubles.
In the same period, work was completed «Spring. On the big river «(1880 - 1890, private collection, Moscow). Gloomy cold atmosphere does not give even a hint on the first green. Everything is covered with snow and withered last year’s grass, a huge block of ice lying on the bank of the river. It felt only desperate hope for the future spring warmth, which should transform the dull edge of a flooded his poor huts. Only creed of the artist - a dome with a cross, you can see ot on the background of the picture, it gives a timid hope for a good end.
Cloth «thaw» (1894, the Volgograd Museum of Fine Arts) is also perfectly describes the state of mind of the artist in recent years. Beautiful at first glance winter landscape, leaves the impression of loneliness and emptiness, a black toboggan track on the path passes a hopeless motive inevitable end.
Aleksey Kondratevich Savrasov, who stood at the cradle of the national landscape, died September 26, 1897 at the Department of the poor of Moscow City Hospital №2. A week later, Levitan published in the newspaper «Russian Gazette» article devoted to the memory of the master. In it, he called his favorite teacher first «lyricist» domestic painting. It Savrasov managed to capture on canvas the poetry and beauty of Russian nature, permeated by an unearthly light, passing through it, the image of his people and his beloved homeland.