Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy (1837-1887) automatic translate
Throughout his life, Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy tried to turn art to life, so that it became an effective tool for her active cognition. An outstanding figure in art, who played a huge role in the formation of the national school of painting, headed the famous «revolt of fourteen», stood at the head of the Artel of Artists and the Association of Wanderers, was one of those whose life and work invariably served the most revolutionary, most advanced ideas of his time.
A heightened sense of life
Ivan Nikolaevich wrote in his biography: «I was born in 1837, on May 27 (according to Art.-V.R.), in the district town of Ostrogozhsk, Voronezh province, in the suburban suburb of Novaya Sotne, from the parents assigned to the local philistinism. 12 years old, I lost my father, a very hard man, as I remember. My father served in the City Duma, if I’m not mistaken, a journalist (ie, clerk - VR); my grandfather, according to stories... was also some sort of clerk in Ukraine. Then my genealogy does not rise. «
In the declining years, the artist ironically noted that «something like a» person «came out of him. In his autobiography, there is some bitterness, but at the same time, the legitimate pride of a man who has escaped from the «bottoms» and who has become one of the most outstanding figures of his time. The painter wrote about how he tried to get an education all his life, but he managed to finish only Ostrogozhskoe Uyezd School, although he became a «first student» there. «... I never envied anyone so... as a person really educated,» notes Kramskoy, mentioning that after training he became the same clerk in the city duma, as was his father.
The young man began to be interested in art early, but the first person to notice and support it was the local amateur artist and photographer Mikhail Borisovich Tulinov, who was grateful to Kramskoy all his life. For some time he was trained in icon painting, then, at the age of sixteen, he «had a chance to break out of the district town with a Kharkov photographer». The future artist traveled with him «most of Russia for three years, as a retoucher and watercolorist. It was a harsh school... «. But this «harsh school» brought Kramsky a lot of benefit, tempered his will and formed a strong character, only strengthening his desire to become an artist.
Judging by his diary entries, the young Ivan Kramskoy was an enthusiastic youth, but in 1857 a man arrived in St. Petersburg, firmly knowing what he wanted and how to achieve it. The beginning of an independent path of the future painter had a difficult time for the whole of Russia. The Crimean War has just ended, marking the crushing military and political defeat of the autocracy, awakening at the same time the public consciousness of both progressive people and the broad masses of the people.
Monolith of the Imperial Academy
It was not far off that the abolition of hated serfdom was canceled, and progressive Russia was not just waiting for the coming changes, but in every possible way it contributed to them. The alarm of the herzen «Bell» sounded powerful, the young revolutionary raznochintsy, headed by NG Chernyshevsky, prepared themselves for the struggle for the liberation of the people. And even so far from practical life the sphere of «high» art succumbed to the wind of change.
If serfdom was the main obstacle to the development of all aspects of society, the citadel of conservatism in the field of art was the Imperial Academy of Arts, created in the middle of the eighteenth century. As a conductor of official doctrines and already outlived aesthetic principles, she did not allow the «beautiful» area to have anything in common with reality. But her students in the second half of the 50’s - early 60’s, more and more definitely felt that life makes absolutely different demands on art. The remarkable words of N.G. Chernyshevsky «the beautiful life is» became a program setting for the entire progressive Russian intelligentsia and young figures of the emerging Russian democratic art. They brought new public sentiments to the Academy of Arts, established close ties with the students of the University, the Medico-Surgical Academy, in which the heroes of Chernyshevsky’s novel What to Do? Dmitry Lopukhov and Alexander Kirsanov, both typical raznochintsy, the same age as I. Kramskoy.
Arrived in St. Petersburg, Ivan Nikolaevich already enjoyed the glory of an excellent retoucher, which opened doors for him in the studio of the best metropolitan photographers, IF Aleksandrovsky and AI Dyer. But the career of a successful artisan could not satisfy him. Kramskoy more and more persistently thought about entering the Academy of Arts.
Kramskoy’s drawings were immediately approved by the Council of the Academy, and in the fall of 1857 he became a pupil of Professor A. T. Markov. So his cherished dream came true, and I must say that he studied very diligently, worked hard on the drawing, whose culture was very high in the Academy, successfully worked on sketches for historical and mythological subjects, receiving all the prizes.
But the young painter did not feel the real satisfaction. A man thoughtful, well-read, he more and more definitely felt the fundamental discord between the old artistic doctrines and real life. Only a few months after Kramskoy’s admission to the Academy, the work of AA Ivanov «The Appearance of Christ to the People» was brought to St. Petersburg from Italy. The return of the artist to Russia after almost thirty years of absence, followed by his sudden death, the impression that the contemporaries made on the painting, which became the main business of the great master, played a huge role in shaping the consciousness of the emerging advanced part of the Russian intelligentsia.
The Riot of Fourteen
The best thing about the riot of the 14th was told by Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy in his letter to his old friend Mikhail Tulinov: «My dear Mikhail Borisovich! Attention! On November 9, that is, last Saturday, the following happened at the Academy: 14 of the students submitted a request for the issuance of diplomas for the title of class artists. At first glance, there is nothing surprising.
People are free, freelancing students, can, when they want to leave classes. But the fact of the matter is that these 14 are not simple disciples, but people who write for the first gold medal. It was like this: a month earlier we had applied for permission to allow us free choice of subjects, but we were refused our request... and we decided to give one story to historians and a story to genre painters who had chosen their subjects from time immemorial. On the day of the contest, on November 9th, we are at the office and decided to go all together to the Council and find out what the Council decided. So, to the question of the inspector: who are we historians and who are the genre artists? we, in order to all enter the conference hall, answered that we are all historians. Finally, they call the person of the Council to listen to the task. We enter. FF Lvov read the following story to us: «The Feast in Valhalla» - from the Scandinavian mythology, where the heroes of the knights fight eternally, where the god Odin presides, two crows sit on his shoulders, and at the feet two wolves, and, finally, somewhere in the sky, between the pillars of the month, driven by a monster in the form of a wolf, and many other nonsense. After that, Bruni stood up, coming to us to explain the plot, as is always the case. But one of us, namely Kramskoy, is separated and pronounces the following: «We ask permission in the face of the Council to say a few words» (silence, and the eyes of all glared at the speaker). «We submitted a petition twice, but the Council did not find it possible to fulfill our request; we, not considering ourselves in the right to insist more and not daring to think about changing academic regulations, we ask you most humbly to free us from participating in the competition and to give us diplomas for the title of artists. «
A few moments - silence. Finally Gagarin and Ton make sounds: «all?». We reply: «All», and we leave, but in the next room we give petitions to the manufacturer of the cases... And on the same day Gagarin asked Dolgorukov to write that nothing would appear in the literature without first viewing it (Gagarin). In a word, we put in a quandary. So, we cut off our own retreat and do not want to return, and let the Academy be healthy for its century. Everywhere we find sympathy for our action, so that one sent from writers asked me to inform him of the words I said in the Council for printing. But we are still silent. And since we have held hands tight so far, then, so that we do not get lost, we decided to keep on going to form an artistic association, that is, working together and living together. I ask you to inform me of your advice and considerations on the practical arrangements and general rules applicable to our society.. And it seems to us now this business is possible. Our circle of activities is embraced: portraits, iconostases, copies, original paintings, drawings for editions and lithographs, drawings on the tree, in a word, everything related to our specialty... Here is a program that is far from clear, as you see... «.
In this letter, the artist not only reveals the vicissitudes of the confrontation between young artists and the Academy, but also sees prospects for the future, not yet completely clear, but very bold and not limited to selfish survival. After this incident, secret police supervision, over many years, was established over Kramskoy and his comrades. Here are the names of fourteen participants in the «rebellion»: the painters I. Kramskoy, A. Morozov, F. Zhuravlev, M. Peskov, B. Wenig, P. Zabolotsky, N. Shustov, A. Litovchenko, N. Dmitriev, A. Korzukhin, A. Grigoriev, N. Petrov, K. Lemoh and sculptor V. Kreitan.
All of them were ordered to urgently release the workshops, but the youth, left without means of subsistence, still won a major victory, the value of which at that time could hardly understand. This was the first conquest of Russian democratic realistic art. Soon, Kramskoy, along with like-minded people, embarked on the practical implementation of his idea - the creation of the first independent «artistic association» - the Artel of Artists.
Kramskoye eyes Repin
After the expulsion from the Academy, Kramskoy arranged to teach at the School of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, among the pupils of which «was a talented young man who had just come to Petersburg from Ukraine,» just as Kramskoy himself once dreamed of enrolling in the Academy of Arts - Ilya Repin.
Ilya Yefimovich himself describes his first meeting with Kramskoy: «This is Sunday, twelve o’clock in the afternoon. There is a lot of excitement in the class, Kramskoy has not yet. We paint from the head of Milo of Croton... In the classroom it’s noisy... Suddenly there was complete silence... And I saw a lean man in a black frock coat, which was entering the class with a firm gait. I thought it was someone else: I imagined Kramskoy otherwise. Instead of a beautiful pale profile, it had a thin cheekbone face and black smooth hair, instead of chestnut curls to the shoulders, and such a tattered liquid beard only happens to students and teachers. - Who is this? I whisper to my friend. - Kramskoy! Do not you know? - He is surprised. So he’s like that!.. Now he looked at me; seems to have noticed. What eyes! Do not hide, for nothing that small and sit deep in the hollow orbits; gray, glow... What a serious face! But the voice is pleasant, sincere, speaks with excitement... But they listen to it too! Even the work was abandoned, they stand around, opening their mouths; it is clear that they are trying to memorize every word. «
Repin, like many Russian artists (Kramskoy himself wrote superbly, as well as Perov), Repin turned out to be a talented writer. In his essay «Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy (The Memory of the Teacher),» with his impulsiveness, he creates a very lively, expressive literary portrait. «Kramskoy on the Repin pages is all in motion, in the struggle, this is not a frozen wax figure of the panopticon, it is the hero who is fascinating, rich in episodes of the story», K. Chukovsky later wrote.
Repin created an image that almost coincides with the «Self-portrait» written by Kramskoy in 1867 and distinguished by an unusually objective characteristic. In the picture, nothing distracts us from the main thing - the face of the hero, with a strict, penetrating gaze of gray eyes. Mind, will, restraint - these are the main features of the artist’s personality, which can be clearly seen in the canvas. A proud sense of self-worth is manifested without pose or posing. Everything is simple and natural in the external appearance of the painter and in its own way is harmonious in the inner. The color of the portrait is almost monochrome, the smear is dynamic, before us is the recognized head of the first St. Petersburg Artel of Artists.
Creation of the Artel
On the facade of the house number 2/10, standing on the corner of Mayorov Avenue and the Admiralty Avenue in St. Petersburg, a memorial plaque with the inscription: «In this house from 1866 to 1870 lived and worked a major Russian artist Ivan Nikolayevich Kramskoy. It also housed the Artel, organized by him, combining progressive artists-realists of the 60s. « But in reality, the Artel of Artists did not immediately get a room in the center of the capital, not far from Palace Square.
Everything began much more modestly. Recalling the organization of Artel, Kramskoy before his death wrote to Stasov: «... then it was necessary first of all to eat, eat, since all 14 people had two chairs and one three-legged table. Those who had anything at all, immediately disappeared. « «After much reflection,» Repin wrote, «they came to the conclusion that it is necessary to arrange with the government’s permission Artel of Artists - something like an art firm, a workshop and an office accepting orders from the street, with a sign and an approved charter. They rented a large apartment in the Seventeenth Line of Vasilievsky Island and moved (most of it) to live there together. And then they immediately came to life, cheered up. The general big bright hall, comfortable rooms for everyone, their own farm, which was led by Kramsky’s wife, all this encouraged them. Life has become more cheerful, and some orders have appeared. Society is power. « So there was the first association of artists, organized by Kramskoy. It allowed many talented masters of painting not only to survive, but to achieve success, recognition and financial independence, which, as a result, caused further complete disintegration of the organization.
Personal life and interest in psychology
Ivan Nikolayevich was always sure that his chosen one would be his faithful friend, would share with him all the hardships of the artist’s life. Sofya Nikolaevna, who became his wife, fully embodied his dreams of personal happiness. In one of the artist’s letters to his wife, we read: «... you not only do not prevent me from being an artist and companion of my comrades, but even as if she herself became a true artel...» Kramskoy repeatedly painted portraits of Sophia Nikolaevna. And although it would be too bold to call her «muse» of the artist, she was undoubtedly the ideal of a woman for him. The best proof of this is her images, created in portraits of the 60s. Common features for all canvases are the integrity, independence and pride of their heroine, allowing you to see in her «a new woman», which at the same time did not lose true femininity, poetry and softness.
These qualities are especially noticeable in her graphic portrait, owned by the Tretyakov Gallery (1860s). A young, charming and tender woman with a strong strong-willed character, which speaks to us of an energetic turn of her head and a strict but open view.
Painting «Reading. Portrait of S. Kramskoy, written in 1863, reminds us of lyrical female portraits of the beginning of the XIX century. The color of the painting is based on a combination of shades of light green, lilac and other delicate colors. A great role in the canvas is played by the landscape and a few carefully selected accessories that help to convey the obvious appeal of the heroine of the portrait. The young couple of Kramskikh was captured in 1865 by their common friend, «artel» NA Koshelev. In the film «Kramskoy with his wife» we see a lyrical scene: Sofya Nikolaevna plays the piano, while Ivan Nikolayevich plunges into meditation to the accompaniment of her music.
In the 60’s Kramskoy created many graphic portraits of his friends: NA Koshelev, spouses Dmitriev-Orenburg, MB Tulinov, II Shishkin, increasing their psychological strength. True, the rapidly developing picture then seemed to displace graphic and costly pictorial portraits. There was an impression that absolutely everything was available to the camera, that he could not only accurately fix the appearance of the posing one, but also advantageously emphasize the necessary details of the costume, rich furnishings, jewelry, etc. But, as time showed, one was beyond his power - look inside the person, give him a certain social and psychological assessment. This remained achievable only in the portrait created by the artist.
It was this - the perfection of the psychological portrait - that many masters were engaged, including NN. Ge, V.G. Perov and I.N. Kramskoy. Powerful Russian realistic portrait rise coincided with the beginning of the era and the end of an era Peredvizhnichestvo Artel they lost their original meaning in time.
Association of the Wanderers
Great idea to create TPHV, who played a big role in the life of Russian art, belong to a group of prominent Moscow and St. Petersburg artists, and direct initiator of undertakings was known genre painter GG Myasoedov. He wrote a letter to the Artel, met there support only certain members, first of all - IN Archeology.
The toga, the organization was established in 1870, is able to release the Russian democratic art from the tutelage of the state, to unite the best artists around the pool, based on the principle of personal material interest of all its members. The main objective of the Association is the development of art. The practice of traveling exhibitions opened the possibility of a direct connection between artists with a wider audience, thus raising the most urgent issues of our time.
For several decades, many of the best works of the Wanderers acquired in his collection PM Tretyakov. November 28 (December 12 New Style) 1871 was held in St. Petersburg, the first exhibition of the Association. It should be noted that it Kramskoy, a man very strong principles and beliefs created Peredvizhniki was bound by the fact that very soon turned the task of exhibition organization and become a true school of advanced Russian art.
as Ivan himself, organizing and directing the Fellowship of his creative life, has found in it the «breeding ground», which allowed him to achieve his own artistic heights. Heyday of Association of the Wanderers coincided with the heyday of Archeology, and as a painter and as a critic and publicist, the author of a number of very serious articles in which he expressed his thoughts about the fate of art and its high social purpose.
In numerous letters to a variety of persons can be found a number of interesting observations on the Archeology of the great masters of the past and contemporary Russian and European artists. The most remarkable point in the artist’s critical reasoning was that he wrote them not so much for the edification of others, how to express the enormous and continuous inner work, which was conducted in himself.
Kramskoy, his aesthetic views, was a consistent supporter of the teachings of the great democrats VG Belinsky and NG Chernyshevsky. He wrote, believing that only life itself can be the basis of artistic creation: «Poor thing, when art becomes the legislator.. A major interests of the people must always be ahead less significant!».
Kramskoy asserted that «the art and can be no other than the national one. Never anywhere other art was not, and if there are so-called universal art, it is only due to the fact that it reflected the nation, standing in front of human development. And if someday in the distant future, Russia is destined to occupy a position among the nations, and then the Russian art, Deeply domestic, will become universal. «
image of Christ
In the heyday of Impressionist art in France, Repin, who had been in Paris and admire their creativity, wrote that «we», ie Russian, «a completely different people, in addition, in the development of (art -. VR), we are in an earlier Phasis.» In response to the Archeology of the fact that the Russian artists have finally «move to the light, to paint,» Repin said: «... our task - the content. Face, the soul of man, the drama of life, impressions of nature, and the meaning of her life, the spirit of history - that’s our topic... we paint - an instrument, they must express our thoughts, our flavor - not elegant spot, he must express our mood pictures, her soul, he must locate and capture the entire audience, as a chord in music. «
It should be noted that similar ideas at the time expressed by many Russian artists from FM Dostoevsky to MP Mussorgsky. Direct incarnation they got in the works, IN Archeology.
The most important work in the artist’s work has become shown in the second exhibition of the Association of the Wanderers painting «Christ in the Desert» (1872), an idea that came to him for a long time. The fact that it became the seat of the most important ideas for him, the artist said: «Under the influence of a number of experiences I have settled very heavy feeling of life. I see clearly that there is a moment in everyone’s life, more or less created in the image and likeness of God, when it is thought - whether to go right or left.. We all know what usually ends like swing?. Expanding on the idea, embracing humanity in general, I, from my own experience, in my small original, and only one of him, I can guess at the terrible drama which was played out, and during historical crises. And now I have a terrible need to tell others what I think. But how to tell? The way in which I can be understood? By a property of nature, hieroglyphic language accessible to me the most. And then one day... I saw a figure sitting in deep thought... His thought has been so serious and deep that I found him standing in the same position... It was clear that he was doing for his important question, so important that he is insensitive to the terrible physical fatigue... Who was it? I dont know. In all probability, it was a hallucination; I really, I suppose, did not see it. It seemed to me that it is better suited to what I wanted to tell. Here I do not even need to invent anything, I just tried to copy. When finished, he gave him a daring name. But if I could at the time when he watched to write it, whether it is the Christ? I do not know...».
We can judge how long and hard the artist worked on the creation of that «right» way through a huge number of drawings and sketches made in preparation for the main job. The significance of this for Archeology, can be judged by the fact that he continued to build upon his work even after it has been posted in the Gallery Tretyakov.
The artist depicted Christ sitting on a cold gray stones, desert soil is dead, it seems that Jesus wandered wherever not yet set foot human leg. The delicate balance of the horizon dividing the work in half the space, while the figure of His dominates the space of the canvas, painting the sky a clear silhouette, and is in harmony with the earthly world depicted on the canvas. It only helps the artist to deepen the inner drama of his hero. In the picture there is no action, but the viewer feels like a life of the spirit, thought-son of God, deciding for themselves some important question.
His wounded feet on the sharp stones, the figure of a crouching, his hands clenched painfully. Meanwhile, haggard face of Jesus is not simply transfers his suffering, and in spite of everything expresses great strength of will, boundless loyalty to the idea that he has subjected all his life.
«He sat down, so when the sun was still in front of him, got tired, exhausted, he first held his eyes the sun, then noticed the night, and at dawn is, when the sun should rise behind him, he continued to sit motionless. And we can not say that he did was insensitive to the feelings: no, he influenced the come morning cold, instinctively pressed his elbows close to your body, and only, however, his lips as if dried, matted with a long silence, and only his eyes betrayed inner work, although did not see anything... «.
The author refers to his contemporaries, raising in this work great and eternal human problems, confronting them with the difficult question of choice of life. In Russia at that time there were many people willing to sacrifice themselves for the sake of truth, goodness and justice. They prepared for «going to the people» young revolutionaries, who soon will be the heroes of many works of democratic literature and painting. The close relationship between the paintings and the life of Archeology was obvious, but the artist wanted to create a work program: «And so, this is not the Christ, that is, I do not know who it is. It is an expression of my personal thoughts. Which moment? Transition. That this will be? Continued in the next book. « The same «next book» was to be the canvas «Laughter» ( «Hail, King of the Jews!», 1877-1882 years).
In 1872 wrote Kramskoy F. A. Vasilevu: «We must write more» Christ «means it is necessary, that is not actually his, and the crowd that roars with laughter, all the forces of his lungs... This huge animal laughter so many years after me. It’s not that hard, it’s hard, if not difficult, that laugh. « Christ in front of the crowd, mocked, spat upon, but «he is calm, like a statue, pale as a sheet.» «While we are not serious chat about the good, of honesty, we are all in tune, seriously try to hold Christian ideas into practice, see how raising laughter all around. This laughter everywhere pursues me wherever I may go, I hear it everywhere. «
«Seriously conduct Christian ideas» for the artist is not meant to assert the dogmas of the official orthodoxy, it was the desire to stand up for the true morality, humanity. The protagonist of «laughter» was the epitome of not only the ideas of Archeology itself, there generally reflected the thoughts of many fair-minded representatives of that time, which, directly clash with rudeness, all-destroying cynicism, greed clearly proved that abstract good is simply not in a position to win now real evil.
In the life of Archeology, in the middle of his life, he was a kind of drama, akin to that experienced at the end of its path Ivanov. The artist began to feel that befell his creative failure (the product of «laughter» was never completed) is a consequence of the fallacy of his chosen ideological position as a whole. Generated by these doubts were peculiar to many of the best representatives of the Russian intelligentsia utopian maximalism. A difficult task, which he tried in vain to implement a series of works of Christ, the artist has managed to solve in his magnificent portrait of the 70-80-ies, embodied in the great gallery of images leading Russian writers, scientists, artists and scene figures his idea of high moral personality appearance.
In those same 70 Kramskoy wrote a number not peculiar to him earlier lyrical works, a notable example of which can serve as a picture of the «old house Inspection» (1873), tells the story of an abandoned and decaying «noble nest», in which he returned his master, after many year absence. «Old-bred gentleman, a bachelor,» and finally «come to his family estate after a long, a very long time and is the mansion in ruins: the ceiling collapsed in one place, everywhere spider webs and mold on the walls of a number of ancestral portraits. Lead him by the hand two female personality... For them - the buyer - fat merchant... «.
We see an old man, slowly moving in a suite of rooms of the abandoned family estate. Here he entered the room, hung with tarnished by time portraits of his ancestors, he saw antique furniture in gray-canvas covers, it seems that even the air in this old house is painted in the smoky dusty tones, time has stopped here, and timid light from the windows is unable to dispel this darkness of the past.
As I mentioned in the letters NA Mudrogel - one of the oldest members of the Tretyakov Gallery, probably «in the film» Visit the old house «Kramskoy painted himself.» To contemporaries is of great interest, though, even if it does so, the artist does not just try on this sad and lyrical situation. Kramskoy put them in the generated image of a wide poetic and profound social significance.
As is known, the picture was left unfinished. Perhaps Kramskoy, as a man active, activity, purely «social» simply not afford to relax, go to the lyrical direction, overcoming in himself this weakness to work on the works of a very different social significance, more important, in his opinion, a complex social and artistic situation in Russia of the 1870s. «I do portraits, in fact, has never loved, and if done tolerably well, it was only because he loved and love the human face... I made a portrait of necessity» - Ivan wrote. It is obvious, however, that only a «necessity» could not by itself make it an outstanding portrait master.
Portrait of Tolstoy
The need to prove that, according to the ideas of Chernyshevsky, «the human person is the ultimate beauty in the world, accessible to our senses,» awakened in Kramskov a keen interest in «human face». Thanks to this artist’s interest in the reflection of the human soul, the portraits created by the wizard in this era, were an invaluable contribution to Russian art 1860-80-ies.
«Portraits, are you now - he wrote in 1881, I. E. Repin, - represent a person dear nation, its best sons, who brought the positive benefit of his selfless work for the benefit and prosperity of the native land, who believed in a better future and its who fought for the idea... «Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy became one of the founders of the gallery of portraits, thanks to which we are now able to see the faces of people who have played a huge role in the history and art of Russia. Among the first of them was Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, whose first portraits painted it Kramskoy.
Get in a collection of portraits of the great Russian writer was the cherished dream of Tretyakov, but to persuade Tolstoy’s pose yet no one could. On the other hand, it was Kramskoy, who was trying to persuade collectors to help young talented artist FA Vasilyev, who was dying of tuberculosis in the Crimea. As a result, in 1873 Kramskoy to pay for the debt Vasilyeva Tretyakov, Tolstoy persuaded to pose for him for two portraits: one intended for a collector, the second - for the house of the writer in Yasnaya Polyana.
Ivan worked on two parallel blades, while trying to avoid the absolute identity. As a result, the writer chose the family portrait with a more intimate interpretation of Leo Tolstoy in which he immersed himself. Tretyakov also produced portraits, in which the writer, as it appeals to the viewer. So at the same time the artist managed to create two fundamentally different artistic image.
Both portraits have a number of common features. Firstly, neutral background, whereby figures location in space no longer plays any role. Second, the hand model are written only in general terms. Third, the artist deliberately avoided expressive paintings in the coloring. Such restraint plastic solution allowed to transfer all the attention on the person forty-five Tolstoy - open, simple, framed by a bushy beard and a peasant-cropped hair.
The main thing to create a portrait - the eyes of the writer, expressing the hard work of thought intelligent and educated man. With paintings Archeology Tolstoy looks at us «relentlessly and rigorously, even cold... not allowing themselves even for a moment forget about their task of observation and analysis. He becomes a scientist, and his subject - the human soul «- so described his impression of a prominent Soviet art D. Sarabyanov. That comprehension mighty intellect Tolstoy was the main goal, and certainly represent the main difficulty faced by the artist in this work.
portraits of great
Kramskoy wrote many portraits commissioned Tretyakov, paying homage to this outstanding man. So in 1871, the artist writes on photography portrait of the great Ukrainian poet Tarasa Grigorevicha Shevchenko. In winter 1876, Ivan Nikolaevich especially moving closer to family collector, working on portraits of his wife Tretyakov Vera Nikolayevna, and of Pavel Mikhailovich, where he always saw not a merchant, but an intellectual and a true patriot of Russian national culture, firmly who believed that «the Russian school of painting It will not be the last. « A small portrait of 1876, characterized by a kind of «chamber» artistic solutions, Kramskoy tried to express the social significance of the person portrayed.
Commissioned by the Tretyakov artist created two images of the great Russian poet-democrat NA Nekrasov (1877-1878 years), the first of them - a portrait of Nikolai, the second - the picture «Nekrasov during the» Last Songs «. Work on these products was compounded serious illness of the poet. The artist succeeded in writing it is sometimes just ten - fifteen minutes a day, but by 30 March 1877 portrait of N. A. Nekrasov was completed.
But the most valuable is not it, and the picture «Nekrasov during the» Last Songs «, on which the selection of domestic components helped to create an exact image of the poet. Pale, dressed all in white, a very sick Nekrasov, sitting on the bed, completely lost in thought. The photos N. A. Dobrolyubova and I. S. Turgeneva, hung on the walls of his office, as well as the bust of V. G. Belinskogo, the ideological mentor and a great friend of Nekrasov, convey the atmosphere of a rich, intense artistic life, giving the feeling that the great poet immortal.
Interestingly, if you look into the surface of the canvas paintings, you will notice that it is crossed by several stitches. Picture of the head of the poet executed on a separate piece, the original position which is easy to install. Apparently, the first master depicted terminally ill poet lying, then rebuilding the composition, for emphasis. Nekrasov, appreciated the talent of Archeology, giving him a copy of his book «The Last Song», which was written on the title page: «Kramskoy memory. Nekrasov April 3. «.
Archeology Work on the images of outstanding satirist Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin was even more complex, stretching over several years. One of the two, to create a portrait painter, also meant for Tretyakov collection and created from 1877 to 1879, undergoing endless alterations. After completing the painting, Kramskoy writes Tretyakov, that the portrait of the «left really very similar,» speaking of his artistic features, master emphasizes: «Painting... came Murugan and imagine - with the intention.»
Like the portrait of Tolstoy’s works color is very dull, gloomy. Thus, the artist brings into focus the face Shchedrin, his high forehead, sadly drooping corners of her mouth, and, most importantly, inherent only to him demanding an inquiring look. A big role in creating the image of the writer-satirist play a hand - closed, with thin fingers intertwined, they emphasized aristocratic, but not lordly.
Rallying point for Leo Tolstoy’s portraits, Nekrasov, ME Saltykov-Shchedrin, Pavel Tretyakov, was the idea of good citizenship. They Kramskoy saw the spiritual leaders of the nation, the progressive people of Svoge time. It left an imprint on the manner portrayed image. The artist deliberately «narrowed» the boundaries of their personality, to emphasize their social significance. Nothing, according to Archeology, should not distract the viewer from the main - the spiritual component of the heroes of his portraits, so the color of fabrics so deaf.
When the artist painted portraits of writers and artists, in his opinion, is not so powerful to accumulate the «spiritual power» era, he did pictorial-plastic solution works more free, relaxed, making the images they portrayed people live and direct. For works of this kind can be attributed by a painter in 1873, a portrait of Ivana Ivanovicha Shishkina. This work, like painting «Nekrasov during the» Last Songs «, belongs to the category of paintings, portraits, since it joined in a harmonious whole just two starters - portrait and landscape.
Created in the image of the nature of this product is it’s not just the natural background scenery for the master image, but the elements in which he lived and worked. Lyrical and at the same time majestic scenery (clear blue sky with floating by light clouds, the mysterious silhouette of the forest and high grass Shishkin feet), not only recreates the kind of particular location, how much is a generalized expression of Russian nature, as it portrayed in the ’70s years, including himself I. I. Shishkin.
The artist sought to emphasize its indissoluble unity with the surrounding world. Slim but powerful figure landscape painter, his strong-willed, open face, the external simplicity and simultaneously indisputable greatness of his appearance, the way he calmly and in a businesslike gazes into endless distance, all this accurately conveys the idea of Archeology of Shishkin, as a «man-school «,» milestone in the development of Russian landscape. «
Later, in 1880 Kramskoy write another portrait of the great singer of Russian nature. In it the artist once again marvel at his physical strength, noting that with age, Shishkin personality becomes richer and more complex.
The extraordinary gift portrait
Among the many written in the 70s portraits of Russian writers and artists, most of whom Kramskoy wrote commissioned by P. M. Tretyakova, were images IA Goncharova, IE Repin, JP Polonsky, PI Melnikova Crypt, MM Antokolsky, ST Aksakov, FA Vasilyeva, MK Klodt, and many others.
You can highlight two portraits - the writer Dmitriya Vasilevicha Grigorovicha (1876) and the painter Aleksandra Dmitrievicha Litovchenko (1878).
Creating a portrait of the author of the then popular novel «Anton Unfortunate,» Master keenly noticed the usual lordly posture Grigorovich and some indulgence and complacency in his eyes, peculiar to man, not accustomed to delve into the complexity of life around them. He emphasized theatrical gesture with his hands clamped between his thin fingers in gold pince-nez. «This is not a portrait, but a scene, a drama.. So before you Grigorovich and sits with all his lies, feletonstvom French, boasting and jesting!» - Kramskoy V. V. Stasov wrote enthusiastically. Although the artist himself, a few years later wrote a letter to the well-known publisher A. S. Suvorinu, trying to deflect the charge of apparent bias, saying he did not want to «do something funny but quite natural enthusiasm visible characteristic form, without the underscore.» As far as this is true, perhaps we will never know, but one thing is quite clear - today we are attracted by the portrait of DV Grigorovich is hobby artist «visible characteristic form», the former pledge of creating a surprisingly bright and vivid human way.
Even more this is reflected in the large-format portrait AD Litovchenko. Dressed in a tight dark brown coat, the artist depicted on a light gray-greenish background. Little «swing» outlining a figure moving circuit Kramskoy emphasized the natural ease of his model. Extraordinarily expressive pose Litovchenko, the right hand is free movement laid behind his back and his left hand delicately holding a habitual gesture cigar. Fingers traced, identified only few precise, dynamic strokes. Kramskoy no accident «smeared» the edge framing the arm sleeves, made it known clearly. So he clearly conveyed the natural immediacy of gesture which corresponds exactly to the living, changeable facial expression portrait of the hero, framed by luxuriant beard. About the picture of lips can only guess, but black as coals, portrayed eyes look so piercingly sharp, well expressing the whole spontaneity of his nature, the whole image Litovchenko perceived «as a living.» Mean, but very expressive details, the artist uses with remarkable accuracy: cap conical shape, its shape perfectly completes the silhouette of the figure of the artist as a whole, as well as a light-yellow gloves, casually looking out of his coat pocket Litovchenko completes his image.
Portrait of AD Litovchenko, without a doubt, one of the biggest success Archeology. His image is turned in such a lively and bright individual due to the high scenic qualities of this painting, «on fire, passion and vitality of fast execution, similar to the Impromptu» (Stasov).
Ivan does not «draw» with a brush, as it did in many of his paintings, as it writes widely, temperamentally, building a color plastic form, anticipating the best portrait paintings IE Repin. Struck by his powerful expression MP Mussorgsky well respond about his work: «Going to the portrait Litovchenko, I bounced... - he wrote V. V. Stasovu. - What chudodeyny Kramskoy! This is not a painting - it’s life, art, power, sought in the works! «.
We can see how by this time become the artist himself, thanks to his «Self-Portrait» in 1874. The small size of the picture, is clearly written «for himself». Intense dark red background helps to create the portrait of the atmosphere accentuated concentration. Kramskoy, staring at his own face, shows how over the years his collection grew and persistence, developed a hard life and a constant labor. His eyes became much deeper and sadder than the self-portrait of 1867, in which the master, as it were publicly announced his chosen position-fighter artist. Now, do not retreat a single step from the path chosen, he admitted to himself how huge mental strength this requires fortitude and courage.
«Until now, the Kramskoy checkered exclusively portraits of men - wrote one observer seventh mobile - but this exhibition shows that it is equally accessible and represents much more difficulty portrait of a woman.»
True remark, especially considering that before a democratic Archeology varieties female portrait, the merit of which the development is wholly owned by him, in Russian painting did not exist.
The image of the Russian people
Kramskoy often wrote that living in St. Petersburg, feeling the whole painful oppressive social atmosphere, he even said that «the climate of St. Petersburg», which he always tried to resist, «killing Russian art and artists.» In this sense, it was a lot of like-minded people. Recall Pushkin says that he «is harmful North», K. P. Bryullova, who returned from Italy, bathed in the glory, but wrote that «mope», because «the fear of climate and bondage.»
«He pulls me out of, St. Petersburg - Kramskoy wrote - I feel sick! Where are pulling why sick?.. Where is the peace? Yes, and it would still be nothing if not lay a rich and incredibly huge amount of material outside of the cities, in the depths of swamps, forests and impassable roads. What a face, what a figure! Yes, the other to help the water of Baden-Baden, another Paris and France, and the third... scrip, but freedom! «. Lively originated in response to «going to the people,» the artist wrote that «sitting in the middle of... start to lose nerve wide free life; too far from the outskirts, and the people, that can give! My God, a huge spring! Have only the ears to hear and eyes to see... Pulls me out, that’s what pulls! «. It is popularly Kramskoy saw the main force of life, opening it to a new source of inspiration.
Images of peasants in the works I. N. Kramskogo very diverse. This «contemplative» (1876, Kiev Museum of Russian Art), a man philosophizing, a seeker of eternal truth, and the beekeeper who lives united with the life of nature ( «Pasechnik,» 1872), and «A peasant with a crutch» (1872, Tallinn art Museum) - has lived a long bleak century scored by an old farmer. There are other images, such as the dignity of total internal character of the painting «Village elder» ( «Miller», 1873), or the mighty stern man on the canvas in 1874, «Head of the peasant» (Penza Art Gallery K.A.Savitskogo).
But the most significant work on the popular topic was the picture of 1874 «Polesovschik». About her Kramskoy wrote P. M. Tretyakovu: «... my sketch in a bullet header, on a plan, is to portray one of those types (they are in the Russian people), that much of the social and political system of people’s life to understand his mind and who are deeply stuck dissatisfaction, bordering on hatred. Of such people in the difficult moments of gaining their gang Stenka Razin, Pugachev, and in ordinary times - they are alone, how and where it is necessary, but will never tolerate. Type unsympathetic, I know, but I also know that there are many, I saw them. «
In the later period of creativity the artist also turned to the peasant theme. In 1882 it was created «study Russian peasant» - a portrait of Mina Moiseyev. In 1883 - the painting «Peasant with a bridle» (Kiev Museum of Russian Art). In these two works, the wizard creates two diametrically opposite way, written, however, with one model.
Contrary to the political defeat of democratic thought in Russia 70-80-ies of the 19th century, which was literally crushed by the regime, Russian democratic art experienced unprecedentedly high rise. In the life of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions there were significant changes to the fore the work of such giants of Russian art as I. E. Repin and V. I. Surikov. Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy continued long and hard work. In spite of the high prestige, which had a painter among his contemporaries, his work became more and more difficult. Evidence of this can be incomplete for many years painting «Laughter», the idea that no longer corresponded to the needs of obschesta. In the end, there were only portraits of Archeology.
During this period, the artist, with his usual skill and psychological insight, he painted portraits I. I. Shishkina, the outstanding figure of Russian medicine S. P. Botkina and actor V. V. Samoylova. Moreover, Kramskoy not just worthy looked near the younger portraitists such as I. E. Repin and N. A. Yaroshenko, but continued to play for them the role of «teacher». Their paintings, in turn, bore the glow of Art Archeology.
Nevertheless, the artist knew that he must be somewhere to grow, find new ways for its creation. He tries his hand at the ceremonial portrait, looking for a new light and color solutions, panting, at the same time, under the weight of standing orders. Hurrying to provide the best possible family and realizing that his forces at the end, Kramskoy tossed between takes time creativity and rapid execution of the work, which sometimes does not lead to the best result. The artist, who enjoyed great respect and even honor, upset by these failures.
Changed demands that life presents itself to art, so art and the system had to change. In 1883 MUZhViZ young artist K. A. Korovin, a disciple of A. K. Savrasova and VD Polenov wrote the essay «chorus», taking an unusual motif and very bold painting techniques for it. Even Polenov familiar with the works of the French Impressionists, was amazed by this bold experiment of the artist, thinking that he was very ahead of his time. Soon, however, a close friend of Korovin, V. A. Serov write his «Girl with Peaches» (1887), a portrait of turning twelve Faith - daughter of the famous Moscow industrialist S. I. Mamontova, in the radiant image of youth.
In an effort to capture the essence of the new trends, Kramskoi wrote his «unknown» (1883) - one of the most mysterious of his paintings. This is how the painting art NG Mashkovtsev: «A young woman is depicted in a stroller on the background of the Anichkov Palace, painted in red rusty color. This color is softened by the winter mist, as well as the contours of the architecture. In order more clearly protrudes foreground female figure. She is dressed with all the luxury fashion. She leaned back in the carriage, padded dark-yellow skin. Her face has a proud woman, conscious of her charm. Not a single portrait Kramskoy was not paying much attention to accessories - velvet, silk, fur. Dark glove, densely covering the hand like a second skin, thin and translucent, through which the living body is felt, is written with some special warmth. Who is she, this fascinating woman, and remains unknown. «
Many believe that Kramskoy painted Anna Karenina as a symbol of the new status of women in society, such as it should be. In this version, there are supporters and opponents, but it would be more correct to assume that the artist IN Kramskoy, and writer L.G.Tolstoy creating their female characters, have invested in them much more than a portrait of a particular woman, namely, his idea of the ideal of the modern woman. Like Tolstoy, Kramskoy, protecting the human dignity of women, has set a goal to try to put through a visible, «subject», the attractiveness of its model representation of the moral and aesthetic categories of beauty.
In 1884 the artist completed his painting «Inconsolable Grief», conceived in the late 70s. leaf plot is inspired by the personal grief of the master - the death at an early age of his two younger sons. Through this work, the artist has an extraordinary amount of sketches and sketches (shows how important it was for Archeology), he gave his own sorrow and grief of his wife - Sophia Nikolaevna. By investing in the picture a lot of personal, deeply intimate, a painter at the same time strive to broaden and deepen its content. Accurately and sparingly selected elements lead us into the atmosphere of the house in which it was a great sorrow, transmitted, however, it is quite restrained, without the melodramatic excesses, only the red glow of funeral candles flickering behind the curtain, suggest its cause.
The compositional and semantic center of the web is full of dramatic image of a woman. Its voltage is directly figure, sad eyes who do not see eye to his lips, swipe a handkerchief, testifying barely repressed sobs, reveal the full depth of her suffering. Such psychological expressiveness of the image is not easily available to the artist. «I sincerely sympathize with maternal grief» - wrote Kramskoy Pavel Tretyakov. «I was looking for a long time pure form and stopped finally in this form...». It is strict form achieved without unnecessary theatrics, allowed him to create an image of a