How the cinema arose and appeared
Who among us, sitting in the dark hall of the cinema, was not proud of the great Chapaev, did not squeeze in terror and anger fists at the sight of red sailors and Bolsheviks thrown in the sea by white gangs («We are from Kronstadt»), did not laugh cheerfully and happily on «The Merry Fellows «, Did not experience with Charlie Chaplin the tragedy of a little man? Who among us does not sing beautiful songs from films?
Cinema - agitationally even more than a radio than a newspaper. Even in those distant times, when the cinema was just beginning. Is not it exemplary in this respect the example of the film «We are from Kronstadt», which became the banner of the Spanish people in the fight against the rebellious generals?
Cinema is visited and loved by billions of spectators. Movies are loved by both old people and children! A movie showing and speaking is understandable and close to everyone.
But very few know how the cinematography was born, this is the closest combination of art and technology, how films were made, how the films on the screen were shown.
But what great importance, what great interest should an acquaintance with the history and technique of cinema, first of all mute, then suddenly talking, singing, then taking on natural colors, finally claiming to display the action is not plane, but relief, to show Motion pictures for a distance (television).
The invention of the «magic lantern»
The history of the cinema is unusually colorful. And she is immeasurably older than people think. This is the history of the Chinese shadows, the story of fooling millions of believers with the help of the «magic lantern» of the monk Kircher, the story of «living photography», which for many years entertained the «folk bottoms» in bazaars and fairs.
The technique of cinema, including the shooting and sounding of motion pictures, the production of mass copies from them, the projection of motion pictures on the screen, is the most complex clump of the most diverse branches of science; And technology. In cinematography, we had to deal with optics, lighting, acoustics, electrical engineering of weak and strong currents, photochemistry, accurate instrumentation and a number of other industries. And today we can enjoy movies without leaving home, online.
Almost three hundred years ago, the Jesuit monk Athanasius Kircher invented the «magic lantern», the principle of which for many years remained almost unchanged. It is the same closed chamber with a light source, which casts a sheaf of light through the capacitor to the screen. Passing through the drawing, the light gives on the screen an enlarged image of this drawing, deposited on pieces of transparent mica. This invention was widely used by monks.
In 1796 in Paris, a physicist, aeronaut and adventurer Robertson demonstrated a slightly improved lantern Kircher. In a quaint, mysteriously furnished room, in clubs of steam and smoke, fantastic monsters passed, «spirits of the dead» were called out. And, of course, in such a situation, a fooled spectator in a ghostly shadow recognized his deceased parent.
But it was still a moving drawing. These were just static «foggy pictures».
The discovery of the cinematic effect
To the moving figure figures of science and technology came later. And, as in most great discoveries, a moving drawing was discovered extremely simply.
Once the English scientist, Roget, looked out the window through the drained curtains onto the cart that was passing along the street. He was interested in one phenomenon. The trolley stopped, but the wheels of the cart through the cracks of the curtains seemed to move faster and then slower. Roget saw the wheels of the cart even when they were hidden from the eyes of the rake curtains. The result of subsequent observations of Roget was his report in the Royal Society «On the Persistence (Persistence) of Vision in Relation to Moving Objects» (1824).
The well-known astronomer and physicist John Herschel (1792-1871), who conducted a series of experiments, became interested in the report of Roget. The most revealing was his experience with a coin. Herschel put the coin on the table with his rib on the eye level and clicked it into rotation. He saw both sides of the coin at the same time, for the impression of the «eagle» remained even at that time, as he saw already «the river». Herschel replaced the coin with a cardboard mug with tied ropes around the edges (diagonally). Rotating the succession of the ropes with a circle, Herschel achieved that in the eyes of the viewer, various images drawn on the two sides of the circle merged. The horizontal line on one side and the vertical line on the other gave a circle during rotation. The bird on one side and the cage on the other created the illusion of a bird sitting in a cage. This rotating circle Herschel called «thaumatrop» and entertained them children and adults, creating new drawings. Herschel suddenly saw on his thaumatropa a drawing in motion. A dog’s head was drawn on one side of the mug, on the other - a dog’s kennel. When the circle turned, it turned out to be a «miracle». The dog, as alive, looked out of the kennel, hid back, again looked out. The painted image came to life, moved. Thaumatron, intended for static, immovable drawings, has acquired a new meaning. A drawing of a person or a horse with a different position of hands or feet on both sides of the mug gave a jumping person, a running horse, etc., while spinning.
Thus, the first cinematographic effect was obtained (it used to be called the «stroboscopic» effect), which served as an impetus for the invention of cinematography.
Regardless of Herschel, the greatest physicist of the 19th century, Faraday (1791-1867), became interested in Roget’s report. He perfected the «hardware». Instead of a curtain, Faraday used a solid disk rotating on the axis with narrow slots along the radii. The effect was the same as that of Herschel. The moving object was visible even when it was closed with a solid part of the circle.
Faraday’s experiments were continued by the Belgian physicist Plato (1801-1883), who built an instrument called a phenacistoscope. One side of Farad’s circle is painted black, on the other side between the slits there is a series of figures giving motion in successive phases. The circle is held in front of the mirror, with the black side facing the observer’s face. When rotating, the viewer saw in the mirror through the slits of the circle a figure in rapidly changing different positions. Obtained the illusion of movement. Somewhat later, in 1832, Plato and the Austrian scientist Stampfer simultaneously perfected the phenacistoscope, abandoning the mirror. Their disk strobe consisted of two circles, mounted on one axis, with drawings placed on the second circle.
A few years later, Gorner invented a zootrot representing a wide cylinder with cuts in it. Inside the cylinder against the slots there was a paper tape with drawings. When rotating, the cylinder gave the impression of genuine movement.
Attempts to display motion on the screen
Many scientists dealt with the problem of moving pictures. Some of them tried to show the moving image to a significant number of spectators, transferring it to the screen.
The most successful in this respect were the works of the French scientist Raynaud. In 1877, he invented a device called a praxinoscope. It is the same zootrop, but somewhat improved. Five years later, Reynaud created the so-called «optical theater», which at that time was a great success. Its essence boils down to the following. A stationary drawing is projected onto the screen using a projection lamp and simultaneously a regular praxinoscope equipped with a second projection lantern and a reflecting mirror is projected onto the same screen, a projection of the figures depicting individual phases of the motion is produced. Drawings were applied to unwinding paper tape.
Applying a photo
A radical revolution was made in 1829, Daguerre and Niepce photographs. The development of photography made it possible to replace the drawn pictures with photographic and snapshots.
A great success in the application of photography for the display of the movement was the American Heil. He starred with his partner in six pa waltz, made from each picture three slides, inserted all 18 transparencies in a sequential order in a rotating circle, installed in the projection lamp, and in 1870 gave the public an extraordinary sight: on the screen Heil with a partner Performed several waltz tours to music. The impression was overwhelming, for on the screen was Heil himself, whom the audience knew in life.
In 1877, the photographer Maybridge (USA) first received photos of horses in motion. For shooting, he applied a large number of cameras installed along the track. The horse, running up, tore the thread connected to the bolt of the apparatus, the bolt clicked, and the horse appeared to be filmed on the run. Showing such a series of shots in the projection lantern gave the effect of a running horse on the screen.
Significantly improved the projection technique of Georges Demeni. In 1892, he invented an apparatus for projecting transparent films. The scheme of the device is simple: the tape is unwound from the reel and passes through the roller and frame. Further, it passes through the roller onto the finger of the disc, then onto the toothed drum and is wound on the second reel. Behind the frame there is a projection light, and in front there is an objective and obturator, which closes the window at the moment the film is pulled.
However, all these inventions were just a prelude to the invention of the cinema that we see now. All these images had a lot of flaws, not giving the opportunity to put them into operation as a mass action.
Genetically significant milestones in the history of cinematography are the inventions of the kinetoscope by Edison (1893) and cinematography by Lumiere (1895).
For filming, Edison designed the cinema, which made it possible to photograph 40 to 60 pictures per second on a film. For projection, Edison invented a kinetoscope, demonstrated for the first time at a worldwide exhibition in Chicago in 1893.
Edison’s kinetoscope was a box with two eyepieces. The film, connected to an endless tape, passing through the system of gear rollers in front of the eyepiece, was illuminated from behind by an electric bulb. Before the film and eyepieces, the obturator was placed, opening the eyepiece only at the moment when the photograph was in sight.
For the production of kinetoscopes Edison organized a joint stock company, and for the production of filming built a special pavilion, which entered the history of the movie under the name «Black Maria» as the first studio for the production of films.
April 14, 1894 was opened the first «kinetoscope salon» on Broadway in New York.
But it was not yet cinema. Only one person could see the tape in the kinetoscope. For a mass simultaneous viewing the kinetoscope was not calculated.
Cinematography of Lumiere
The birthplace of cinematography is considered to be Paris. Here in 1894, Edison’s kinetoscope was brought from America. Here the inventor and owner of the photographic accessories factory, Louis Lumiere, became interested in them.
Lumiere designed a small, lightweight and clearly working apparatus, which received an immortal name - cinematography.
Projection and shooting equipment Lumiere did not change the principles of its structure, only some improvements were made to it. Lumiere had to order the film in New York, but it was covered with a highly sensitive bromosilver emulsion according to the recipe, invented by Lumiere himself.
Lumiere introduced in his design a number of standards that have remained unchanged to the present day. The most important was the introduction of a certain frequency of picture changes, namely sixteen pictures per second. Sound cinema required an increase in the frequency of up to 24 shots per second. Another standard was the width of the film (35 mm), the size of the frame (18 X 24 mm) and the location of the perforation.
The Lumiere apparatus is simple in design. The wooden box is mounted on a wooden tripod. The tape is advanced by means of a grab. On the inner wall of the box is a rectangular window serving to pass light onto the film during filming, before it is a shutter. The tape was projected onto the screen in the same apparatus, to which was added a special projection light with an electric light source
March 22, 1895 Lumiere made a report on his invention with a demonstration of the first films in the Society for the Promotion of National Industry in France. On December 28 of the same year, the first session of the cinema took place in the basement of the «Big Cafe» on the Boulevard of the Capuchins.
On this day the cinema was born as a mass spectacle. From that day he began his victorious procession all over the world. The rapidity of its distribution is evidenced by the fact that in the spring of 1896 the cinema of Lumiere was demonstrated in Russia - in St. Petersburg, Rostov on the Don, Nizhny Novgorod.
And perhaps the first to give a correspondence about the new spectacle was Maxim Gorky, who wrote in the Nizhegorodsky Leaflet in 1896 about the cinema: «There are no sounds and no colors. There everything - the earth, trees, people, water and air - is painted in the most monophonic color. «
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