Biography and work
Norman origin, Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665 gg.) Was born in Les Andelys, a small town on the banks of the Seine. The young Poussin was provided a good education and the opportunity to study the initial stages of the art of the artist. Getting to know your secrets he learned after moving to Paris, where he studied with the masters.
Portraitist Ferdinand Van Elle was the first mentor of the young artist, and later as Poussin studied with masters painted the church - Warren Kent, and the court artist Georges Lallemand, who adhered to the relatively new at the time, the style of Mannerism. "To fill the hand" and helped him up paintings of recognized masters of painting, he was free to engage in the Louvre.
The first period of creativity in Italy
In 1624 the name of Poussin was already known among connoisseurs of painting, and he was more fond of creativity of the Italian masters. Deciding that the French coaches he learned everything he could, Poussin moved to Rome. In addition to Italian painting of Poussin highly valued and poetry, largely due to familiarity with Dzhiambattista Marino, representative of the chivalrous poetry. They became friends back in Paris and Nicola illustrated poem by his friend "Adonis." From the early period of the artist in Paris to have survived only illustration.
Poussin studied mathematics and anatomy, sculpture ancient times served as models for his drawings and scientific works by Durer and da Vinci helped in understanding how the proportions of the human body must be moved to the visual arts. The theoretical knowledge he acquired in geometry, optics, the laws of perspective.
Carracci, Titian, Raphael and Michelangelo - the work of these artists is deeply impressed by the French painter. The first years of his life in Rome was eventually find their own style, and his works were characterized by sharp angles then, dark tones and lots of shadows. Later, his artistic style has changed colors become warmer, and the elements of the paintings submitted to a single center. The theme of the art of that time were heroic scenes and actions of ancient mythology.
At the request of one of the Roman patron of Poussin, Cassiano del Pozzo, an artist created a series of paintings "The Seven Sacraments" and "Destruction of Jerusalem" and "The Rape of the Sabine Women" brought him more fame. Mythological theme of his paintings, he added contemporary trends, composition and arranging enduring effect on the foreground of the picture. Poussin sought to achieve a natural position of actors and make their gestures and facial expressions clear meaning. Harmony and unity with nature, typical of ancient myths, inspired artist, it can be seen in the paintings of "Venus and satire", "Diana and Endymion", "Education of Jupiter."
"Metamorphoses" of Ovid served as the basis for the "Kingdom of Flora", the picture has become a kind of hymn to the revival and renewal of spring nature. Previously acquired theoretical knowledge allowed him to closely follow the accepted laws of composition, and the warm, clear colors make the picture truly alive ("Tancred and Erminia", "Venus and shepherds"). For more accurate image gave preliminary preparation: It is made of wax models of figures, and before you start to work on the painting, experimented with a play of light and the position of these figures.
Paris intrigues and return to Rome
The most successful in the career of Poussin were the years he spent in the work on the decoration of the Louvre gallery, at the invitation of Cardinal Richelieu (the second half of the 30-ies.). When you become the first royal painter, he worked on the gallery, and a variety of other orders. This success did not add to his popularity among fellow painters, especially unhappy were those who also claimed to work in the Louvre.
Intrigue enemies drove the artist to leave Paris in 1642 and again to move to Rome. During this period of creativity (up to 50s.) A source for the paintings of Poussin became the Bible and the Gospel. If in the early works of natural harmony reigned, now heroes of paintings started biblical and mythological characters, victorious over their passions and have willpower (Coriolanus, Diogenes). Symbolic picture of that period - "Arcadian Shepherds", compositionally speaking of the inevitability of death and the peaceful acceptance of this awareness. This picture has become a model of classicism style of the artist has become more restrained, not so emotional lyrical, as in the works of the first Roman period. The predominant colors became more contrast colors.
His last work, "Apollo and Daphne", the artist did not have time to complete, but it is in his pictures was formed French classicism.