Giotto di Bondone - the most famous, "the largest" Pre-Renaissance painter. Thanks to the determination of his nature, commitment, departing from the tradition of Byzantine painting, Giotto was the founder of a new art. The artist has created a vivid, recognizable style, to determine further development of Western European painting.
Milestones biography of the artist
For information about the year and place of birth of the great painters of different. According to one source, Giotto was born in 1267, according to others - in the 1276th.
Some sources claim that at the beginning of the XIV century of Giotto served as a priest in Rome. Most likely, it was then that he created a large-scale mosaic "Navichella" made him famous throughout Italy. In this picture the first time showed a tendency to the realism of Giotto: the characters reliably transmit the viewer their condition - they live, communicate, show the whole gamut of emotions.
Giotto worked for the King of Naples, creating for his private chapel fresco painting the chapel and temples.
By the end of the life of Giotto, because of their extensive knowledge and great skill in painting, he was invited to the post of chief architect of Florence, in the framework of which was to direct large-scale urban works.
Creativity is not limited by numerous Giotto fresco cycles. The great painter left behind an impressive number of works - crosses, altar paintings, polyptych. Not all the works are signed. Only a century later, researchers were able for the surviving historical evidence and it is difficult to attribute the stylistic analysis of works of the Florentine master. The dating of many paintings by Giotto and inaccurate and has an extremely wide time range, which greatly complicates the scientific study of his works.
His easel paintings by Giotto written on wooden boards, which were processed according to the manufacturing technique of Byzantine icons, when specially prepared canvas with a thin pen was applied tempera painting. It is in this technique and performed early works of Giotto, among which stand out "Painted Cross" and "Polyptych".
Six-meter "Painted Cross" was created by the artist in the 1290-1300 biennium. and almost immediately caused a wave of imitation among the many artists. Executed in a spirit of realism, the body of Christ was first perceived as unworthy of Giotto, the author of numerous frescos. Despite the fact that the crucifix is u200bu200bnot a sign of its creator, no doubt, that it belongs to the hand of Giotto, no one there.
A three meter "Polyptych" painted by Giotto in about 1300, was created for the Florentine church. Cloth Screen Caller showing a Madonna and Child with Saints. Painting has reached our times in a very bad condition, but even that fails to see, you can judge the seriousness and gravitas, which the artist has given his characters. Amazing grandeur of saints, always recurring in all five parts of the polyptych has led critics to conclude that this work is one of the best works of Giotto.
By the middle of the life of Giotto he reached the peak of his artistic development. During this period he created the famous frescoes of the Scrovegni Chapel, which is rightly considered the quintessential spirit of the artist. At the same time it was written and the best paintings of Giotto, which fully reflected the desire to master a number of realistic visual transmission.
One of the most famous works of the artist altar rightly considered "Ognissanti Madonna." Creating a huge canvas was attributed by art in the first decades of the XVI century. Picture appeared a little earlier, and it would be no different from those that have been so characteristic of duchento, where the images were incredibly sublime, devoid of anything was earthly. "Ognissanti Madonna" largely "earth" - is the mother of a human, with an open face and a bright smile, opens the teeth. However, such a landing, so uncharacteristic for the art of the XIII century, does not mean at Giotto depletion ease. Embrace of the Madonna by Giotto and everything is expensive, it is magnificent throne, but truthful and convincing, and the angels have an affinity with the court ladies.
Another significant work of this period is considered Giotto "Polyptych Stefanescu", written for the Roman Cardinal. Have survived in good condition presents a large double-sided canvas triptych.
Critics believe that the work on canvas, Giotto departed from its principles, following the tastes of the customer. The artist managed to combine the basic principles duchento with new trends in painting. Depicted in the center of the canvas like a savior Byzantine idol, it is surrounded by angels depicted in the painting style of the XIII century, in the foreground - the customer himself fabric. Virgin and Child surrounded by angels gives persistent association with a panel of saints, all perfectly familiar to the famous temple of Byzantine painting.
The back side of the triptych is also quite unusual. She painted by Giotto and figures of the Apostles, and on the throne of St. Peter and Christ. Vicar of Jesus in the land of the Apostle Paul on the idea of u200bu200bGiotto surrounded by archangels and saints. Painter introduced into his painting and the very real people - canonized at the beginning of the XIV century Pope Celestine V, and, oddly enough, once again the customer web.
Persistent critics believe, is the product of much Giotto knocked out of the total number of his paintings as the qualitative performance, and on a plan. Everything in it is unusual, modern and at the same time archaic. "Polyptych" is made in bright colors, it is distinguished by almost gothic elegance, the extraordinary subtlety and expressiveness of the characters depicted.
Very interesting, and a group of seven scenes dedicated to the life of Christ. Curiously, later studies painting, allowing spectral analysis confirmed that all the scenes were originally painted on a single board, which may represent an independent altarpiece. The scientists, art historians suggest that the central image was a "Crucifixion" and the rest were located on each side of him in the order of changing stages of life of the Savior. Careful study of stylistics given suggests that on the canvas with Giotto worked several of his assistants. Today, a series of fragmented and stored in different collections.
Toward the end of the life of Giotto he was forced to combine the post of chief architect of Florence with the implementation of important and expensive orders that came to him from various cities in Italy. He worked for the kings and rulers of the large aristocratic homes. In this period the artist created paintings such as "The Bologna polyptych" and "Baroncelli Polyptych."
Bologna this time was a major scientific and commercial city, was heavily influenced by the French. Perhaps this explains the presence of the bright Gothic tendencies in the work of Giotto, who have found their reflection and "Bologna polyptych." The architecture of the throne on which sits the Madonna and Child has a distinct imprint Gothic. The richness of her jewelry and dress, jewels, bright, shiny paint contribute to the overall grandeur of the picture. The side panels depict archangels and apostles Paul and Peter. Polyptych has signature of its creator.
Recognition and influence on the development of European art
Since the release of the famous "Lives" artist Vasari always perceive as the greatest master of the art of modern times. By the XIX century surrounded by Giotto special reverence, his authority unquestioned.
The perception of Giotto, based on humanistic principles, eventually laid the foundation of the school of painting during the early Renaissance Florence. Working in different parts of Italy, the artist left followers everywhere, and inspired by admiring his skill. Colleagues recognized and appreciated by the advanced ideas of Giotto, that in the next century only increased interest in his work.
Influence Giotto on modern art in Italy it was huge. Creativity is reflected in the works of master artists across the country.
All the artistic direction of the XIV century (except, perhaps, the Venetian school, suppressing the influence of Byzantine art) accepted and implement the achievements of Giotto.
Long-term and fruitful work of Giotto painting greatly ennobled the status of the other arts. Thanks to the skills of the artist Italian painting in just a few years has radically changed what happened a few centuries earlier. That Giotto its innovative vision has determined the direction of development of art for many years to come. In the middle of the XIV century European artists were introduced to the concept of volume and perspective, space in which objects can be placed, with a thin underline the reality of individual traits. All this is presented to the European art of Giotto, which gradually became closer look closely artists around the world.
Giotto was the first Western European painter who managed to break away from established canons of art of the Middle Ages, to introduce, finally, painting the elements of realism. Giotto was able to break the perception of art as assistant-commentator of the Scriptures. Through innovative ideas and skill of the artist, painting acquired independent significance. Even in the paintings of the biblical story, we see not bezemotsionalnye person and live characters personality. Contemporaries Giotto painting may seem simple and primitive, but for those times, he was a revolutionary who was able to give the amount of the plane, space, perspective. It is with Giotto began a new stage in the development of art, where the quality of items purchased an incredible value.
Text: Irina Sheyhetova