Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
The contradictory nature of the French painter Paul Gauguin postimpressionist and his unusual fate created a special new reality in his work, where color plays a dominant role. Unlike the Impressionists, attach importance shadows, the artist his thoughts passed through a low-key composition, clear outlines of shapes and colors.
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin
The contradictory nature of the French painter Paul Gauguin postimpressionist and his unusual fate created a special new reality in his work, where color plays a dominant role. Unlike the Impressionists, attach importance shadows, the artist his thoughts passed through a low-key composition, clear outlines of shapes and colors. Maximalism Gauguin, his rejection of European civility and restraint, increased interest in alien cultures Europe Islands of South America, the introduction of a new concept of "sintetizm" and the desire to gain a sense of paradise on earth allowed the artist to take in the art world the end of the nineteenth century their special place.
From civilization in overseas countries
Born Paul Gauguin appeared June 7, 1848 in Paris. His parents were French journalist, a radical supporter of republicanism, and his mother Franco-Peruvian descent. After an unsuccessful revolutionary upheaval family was forced to move in with his maternal grandparents in Peru. The artist's father died during the journey of a heart attack, and the family lived Fields seven years in South America.
Returning to France, Gogeny settled in Orleans. Unremarkable provincial town life quickly tired of the field. Adventurous character traits led him on a merchant ship, and then in the Navy, which included Paul visited in Brazil, Panama, on the islands of Oceania, continued his journey from the Mediterranean to the Arctic Circle, has not yet left the service. By this time, the future artist was alone, his mother died, it took custody of Gustave Arosa, to arrange fields in the exchange company. Decent income, success in his new role had to predetermine secured bourgeois life for many years.
Family or creativity
At the same time, Gauguin became acquainted with the governess Mette-Sophie Garde, which was accompanied by a rich Danish heiress. Curvy shape governess, determination, laughing face and manner of speaking without deliberate timidity conquered Gauguin. Metta Sophia Gad no different sensibility, did not recognize the coquetry, freely held and expressed directly, which makes it different from other young ladies. Many men it is repelled, but the dreamer Gauguin contrary captivity. In the self-confidence he saw the original character, and the presence of the girl to banish loneliness torments him. Metta seemed to him the patron in the arms of which he can feel calm as a child. Offer provided by Mette Gauguin absolve need to think about their daily bread. November 22, 1873 the wedding took place. In this marriage were born five children: four boys and a girl. Daughter and second son Paul named in honor of their parents: Clovis and Alina.
Could the young wife to think that it secured a respectable life break innocent artist's brush in the hands of her husband, who is one of the winter days to announce to her that from now on will only deal with painting, and she was with the children will be forced to return to his family in Denmark.
From Impressionism to sintetizm
For Gauguin painting was a way to liberation, Exchange - irretrievably lost time. Only in the work, not wasting time on hateful duties, he could be himself. Having reached the critical point, resigned from the exchange, brings a good income, Gauguin was convinced that all is not so simple. Savings melted, the picture is not sold, but a return to work on the stock exchange and the rejection of newfound freedom led Gauguin in horror.
Uncertain, groping, moving blindly, Gauguin tried to catch it raged in the world of colors and shapes. Under the influence of Manet them at this time wrote a number of still lifes, created a series of works on the subject of the coast of Brittany. But the attraction civilization makes him go to Martinique, participate in the construction of the Panama Canal, in the Antilles to recover from swamp fever.
Operation period of the island are extremely colorful, bright, does not fit into the framework of the canons of Impressionism. Later, came to France, Gauguin in Pont-Aven school unites artists' color synthetism ", for which features are simplified and summary forms: dark contour lines filled with color spots. This method is attached to the work expressiveness and decorative at the same time, making them very bright. It is written in such a manner "Jacob Wrestling with the Angel", "Cafe at Arles" (1888). It's all significantly different from spillovers shadow play of light, making the way through foliage, reflections on the water - all those techniques that are so characteristic of the Impressionists.
After the failure of the exhibition of the Impressionists and "synthetic", Gauguin left France and went to Oceania. Tahiti and Dominique quite consistent with his dream of a world devoid of signs of European civilization. Numerous works of this period are distinguished outdoor sun brightness, rich colors transmitting Polynesia. Receptions styling static figures on the color plane is converted into a composition decorative panels. The desire to live by the laws of primitive man, without the influence of civilization was terminated, to return to France because of the shaky physical health.
Gauguin spends some time in Paris, Brittany, stops together with Van Gogh in Arles, where there is a tragic case. Enthusiastic fans Gauguin in Brittany unwittingly given the opportunity to contact the artist Van Gogh from the perspective of the teacher. Exaltation of Van Gogh and Gauguin perfectionism led to scandals hardball between them, during one of which Van Gogh rushes on Gauguin with a knife and then cut off part of the ear itself. This episode forced Gauguin to leave Arles and after some time returned to Tahiti.
In search of paradise on earth
Thatched hut, a remote village and bright palette in the works, showing tropical nature: the sea, the green, the sun. At this time, the paintings depicts a young wife, Gauguin, Tekhuri that parents in the age of thirteen willingly gave married.
Constant lack of money, health problems, serious venereal disease caused by promiscuity with local girls, forced Gauguin to return to France. Received an inheritance, the artist returns to Tahiti and then to the island of Hiva Oa, where in May 1903 dies of a heart attack. His friend Vincent van Gogh, having received news of the death of Gauguin, shot himself in the chest.
Three weeks after the death of Gauguin his property has been described and sold under the hammer for a pittance. Part of drawings and watercolors some "expert" from the capital of Tahiti simply threw it away. The remaining works were bought at auction naval officers. The most expensive work of "Motherhood" was sold for one hundred and fifty francs, and "Breton village under snow," the appraiser generally demonstrated upside down, giving it the name ... "Niagara Falls".
Postimressionist and innovator synthetism
Along with Cézanne, Seurat and Van Gogh Gauguin is considered the greatest master of post-impressionism, absorbed his lessons, he created his own unique artistic language, bringing the history of modern painting abandonment of the traditional naturalism, taking as a starting point of abstract symbols and shapes of nature, focusing in linear within striking and mysterious color weave.
When writing an article References:
"The Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Art", compiled by EV Ivanova
"Encyclopedia of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism", compiled by TG Petrovets
"Life Gauguin" A. Perryush