Harmens van Rijn Rembrandt (1606-1669) automatic translate
The future great artist Rembrandt was born July 15, 1606 in the fertile era of the heyday of all areas of spiritual culture in Holland. This is the time when national literature, architecture, painting and theater developed especially rapidly. But none of the art areas, in this «golden age», has created so many cultural values recognized at the world level, like painting.
Rembrandt, art gallery
The fine arts of Holland matured during the years of the revolution, the liberation struggle and the post-revolutionary upsurge. Obviously, this is why national painting is of such a pronounced democratic character. The artists of Holland, already in the XVII century, had a rare opportunity to openly express their ideas and attitude to the surrounding reality. Their works are distinguished by bold realism in relation to the image of man and his life.
All the work of Rembrandt is imbued with the highest embodiment of Dutch realism, which was unusually close to the artist’s soul. His works amaze with breadth of thematic coverage, which is a great rarity in the history of world art.
Previously, Rembrandt’s childhood was held in the city of Leiden (Netherlands), where his father kept a mill on the bank of one of the tributaries of the Rhine. Actually, the prefix «Van Rijn» is a generic nickname of the painter, literally meaning «who is from the Rhine».
After the end of the Latin gymnasium, in 1620, the boy spent about a year at the University of Leiden. It was there that his ability to paint first appeared. The young artist began to learn from the local painter Jacob van Svanenburk. But soon moved to Amsterdam, where he found a more eminent teacher, Peter Lastman (1583-1633). The new mentor of Rembrandt was a representative of a group of Dutch artists who deal exclusively with depicting ancient and biblical subjects.
Historical paintings by Lastman enticed viewers with colorful details of mise en scenes from the life of ancient peoples. His individual style was the image of strong emotions on the faces of the characters. Because of this, despite the unquestionable mastery of performance and the ability to create realistic details, all of his paintings differ by the artificiality and theatricality of even real events. Nevertheless, many of the characteristic features of Lastman’s painting significantly influenced the formation of Rembrandt’s style, even though he spent only about six months in his studio.
At the age of nineteen, Rembrandt returned to his native Leiden. Here he begins to practice himself in the art of painting. All the pictures of the «Leiden» period are distinguished by the accuracy, sharp transitions of color and light, and a slightly stern, dryish manner of writing, which gives an inexperienced novice artist.
From the very beginning, Rembrandt attracted the genre of the portrait. There were not enough orders, so the artist tirelessly practiced on himself, his relatives and loved ones. At this time he writes a lot of self-portraits, depicting himself with different facial expressions: embarrassed, smiling, laughing, irritated. So Rembrandt began to improve their ability to realistic transfer of psychological conditions of their heroes. Virtually all early self-portraits are superficial, and even rude, which is explained by the artist’s youth and inexperience.
But, the first experiments of the painter in the field of printed graphics, also relating to the Leyden period, are much more interesting. Data on who Rembrandt studied the art of etching, is not preserved. However, his early engravings already have great mastery of performance, as well as a deep understanding of the drawing.
Judging by the engravings of Rembrandt, he preferred to choose characters for his works, from the very bottom of the Dutch society. His etchings, dedicated to beggars, cripples and vagrants, were so skilful that they attracted public attention to his work. Rembrandt had more orders, pupils began to come to him, the artist began to predict a great future.
At first the painter signed his works with the monogram of his own composition «RHL» - Rembrand Harmen (father’s name) Leiden (hometown). However, after moving to Amsterdam in 1631, he began to sign the same name, like the great masters Raphael and Titiau.
After moving to Amsterdam, the painter came one of the most successful periods in his work and life. Almost immediately he got a very profitable order from the guild of surgeons. In January 1632, Rembrandt attended a lecture by an outstanding physician, Nicholas Peters, during which the audience witnessed an autopsy of a thief’s body. Physicians had the right to open the corpses of those criminals who were sentenced to death. It happened very rarely, that’s why it was always a real event. This moment and captured the artist in his famous painting «The lesson of Anatomy of Dr. Nicholas Tulp» (1632, Mauritshuis, The Hague).
In the process of creating this work, the author acts as a deep psychologist who managed to subtly note and convey a complex picture of personal relationships. A group of listeners - young surgeons, on the canvas is dressed in holiday costumes. For Holland, a kind of portrait depicting a man for his favorite deed was very common. Such a picture required extensive use of household items - including in the plot surrounding elements that characterize the life of the person portrayed. The most difficult task for the artist was to preserve the predominance of the portrait image over the everyday, Rembrandt coped brilliantly with this task.
In the views of the characters of the picture - the admiration of the lecture, which was heard, demonstrated a surprisingly profound knowledge of the lecturer. Arriving surgeons are tense, comparing the anatomy of the opened hand with what is depicted in the big book lying at his feet. Against their background, the doctor himself looks very reserved. As well as it is necessary to the present professional, the doctor does not test neither fear, nor timidity, nor embarrassment. Dr. Tulp is confident in himself, calm, he is not afraid of reality. Even the doctor’s servant, who takes the cloak from the surgeon who comes in the background of the picture, is not at all frightened by the sight.
The picture helped Rembrandt get the recognition of the Amsterdam public. He began to receive a lot of orders for portraits of noble gentlemen, whom he created in the first two years more than fifty. The artist’s popularity grew with his well-being.
Rembrandt was an ardent collector. Most of the money he spent on the acquisition of works of art, antique costumes and antiques. During the inventory of his property, among the works of his extensive collection, there were paintings by Rubens, Raphael, Albrecht Durer, Van Dyke, Peter Brueghel and other masters.
Success and personal happiness
Just two years of his life in Amsterdam, Rembrandt marries. Wife of the painter was the daughter of wealthy patricians Saskia van Eilenborch. The artist was very fond of his wife and often created her portraits in a variety of ways: in the usual suit of the Dutch burgher, or in clothes that transformed her into a heroine of biblical or ancient mythology.
In 1634, Rembrandt wrote his painting «Flora» (State Hermitage, St. Petersburg), in which Saskia appears in the image of the goddess of all the vegetation of Flora. The woman is pregnant, her head is decorated with a wreath, in which tulips are clearly visible, indicating her Dutch origin. Saskia, with a twig in her hands, reminds the fairy-tale princess, who walks in the forest. It is amazing how skillfully written out the fabric of her clothes, causing desire to touch the canvas, to feel the tenderness of the atlas. The picture, despite the cold palette, produces an amazingly warm impression. The image of young Saskia is very touching and very different from the regal woman she appears before us in the picture written a year later.
The work «Sofonisba takes a bowl of poison» (1634, Museo del Prado, Madrid) became one of the earliest paintings on a historical theme. The woman in the picture is very similar to Saskia. The plot of the picture tells of Sofonisbe, the daughter of a Carthaginian commander, who lived during the fierce war of Rome with Carthage. The father extradites her for the king of Sifax, who perishes in the battle with Masinnis, who, in turn, wanted to take the queen to his wife. But, the Romans forbid this marriage, and then Masiniss sends a cup of poison Sofonisbe, drunk queen without hesitation.
The canvas «Self-portrait with Saskia on his knees» (1635-1636, Picture gallery, Dresden) shows us the artist and his wife, glowing with happiness. Rembrandt in the image of the groom, dressed in a smart suit, holds Sasquia on his knees, also clothed in an antique dress, bought by the artist from the antiquary. The artist radiates fun, transmitted to the viewer. With one hand he gently holds the companion by the waist, the other - raises a luxurious glass, as if offering the viewer a drink for their family happiness, sharing the feast of his soul. In all the work there is a tenderness and love of the painter to his wife.
Religion and Mythology
At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, Rembrandt was fascinated by historical painting, which, according to the tradition of the time, included the mythological history of antiquity, as well as biblical subjects. Despite the fact that in many works of the painter is clearly traced the influence of his teacher Lastman, his canvases stood out against the general background of blossoming Dutch painting.
The fact is that Rembrandt was able to do a great deal of individual interpretation of each image. Despite the similarity of color, compositional techniques and costumes of his characters with paintings by Lastman, the artist managed to develop his own unique style, based on the desire to convey the true feelings of the person himself, such as they might be in reality. Remaining within the framework of traditional mythological and biblical subjects, Rembandt’s paintings are devoid of artificiality and theatricality.
In the canvases of the historical series, the talent of Rembrandt the narrator, his desire to show the contradictoriness and ambiguity of human nature, in which, in the master’s opinion, the motives of any act lie, is uniquely brightly revealed.
A great influence on the work of the painter was the philosophy of Pascal, who believed that «a man - something beautiful, containing the truth, on the one hand, on the other hand - is a vessel of uncertainty and error, contradicting himself.»
The painting «The Descent from the Cross» (1634, the State Hermitage, St. Petersburg) was one of a series of paintings on the theme of Passion of Christ, commissioned by Rembrandt Prince Frederic Hendrik of Orange. On the canvas, we see how, at night, relatives and relatives remove from the cross the body of the crucified Jesus. The powerful play of light and shade creates a very strong dramatic effect. The faces of the characters are agitated and pale. The only light source pulls out of the twilight the figure of the tortured Christ. The origin of light is not clear - either it comes from somewhere above, or comes from the Lord itself. The Virgin Mary is depicted as a simple woman. The face of the Mother of God is also illuminated with light. Her figure is located on the right, on either side of her - people who help Mary stay on her feet, her condition speaks for the deepest sorrow. On the ground, a luxurious fabric is laid out, on which the body of Christ will now be placed.
Rembrandt deliberately depicted all the participants of this action by ordinary people, to emphasize that the death of the Son of God is a universal grief. This picture, one of the five ordered by the prince, the artist later repeated, but on a larger scale.
The theme of the murder and resurrection of Christ continues in the canon «The Unbelief of St. Thomas» (1634, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow). Here is an episode where the resurrected Jesus is an apostle and shows wounds. The disciples of Christ tell of the miracle of Thomas, who, in unbelief, declares: «If I do not see the wounds from the nails in my hands and put my finger in the wounds of nails, and put my hand in his ribs, I will not believe.» A few days later, Jesus is again the apostles with whom Thomas was also. Christ came up to him and offered to do what Thomas wanted as evidence - to put his fingers in the wounds. Frightened Thomas fulfills the request and with shame recognizes the Lord.
The painting is painted in dark colors, and only the central part of the composition is illuminated by the bright light radiated by the figure of Jesus. The extraordinary play of light and shadow, inherent in the master’s canvases, conveys the internal dynamics of the episode, its exhilarating character.
The next work, devoted to the biblical subject, was the canvas «Feast of Belshazzar» (1635, National Gallery, London). In the picture is a classic story related to the reign and death of Belshazzar, the last Babylonian king guilty of the fall of Babylon (according to the Book of the Prophet Daniel).
When Babylon was besieged, it contained enough stocks of foodstuffs with which residents could not long worry about food. But the king of Babylon, Belshazzar, unexpectedly decides to arrange for a very insignificant occasion a luxurious feast, inviting him to almost a thousand nobles and courtiers. In the picture, the climax of history, when in the midst of a feast behind the king appears a hand, writing some words. The king, whose figure is located in the center of the composition and occupies almost all of its space, turns around to understand what is happening. On the right of him, as a wine from a precious vessel capsizes, one of the feasting ladies ducked in fear.
According to the Gospel, the court sages of King Belshazzar could not read the magic inscription. Then the Babylonian ruler invites the prophet Daniel, who deciphered the letters. The text on the palace wall read: «God numbered your kingdom and put an end to it. You are weighed, and your weight is not great. Your kingdom is divided and given to Persians and Medes. « According to the biblical narrative, the same night, the king of the Chaldean Belshazzar was killed.
The painting «The Sacrifice of Abraham» (1635, the State Hermitage, St. Petersburg), continued a series of plots from the sacred book. The canvas is shrouded in semi-darkness, only three fragments are snatched away by the light: the body of the young Isaac with his hands tied behind his back, waiting to bend, a fatal blow; The face of Abraham, pale with grief and horror, realizing that he was about to slaughter his own son at the behest of God; and the figure of the angel, as if burst into the composition of the clouds, to save the heroes from the horror.
Throughout his work, in the depiction of man, Rembrandt attracted spectacular in his expression feelings of fear, pain, state of joy, grief, indignation, surprise - everything that is visible to the naked eye, and not inner experiences hidden deep inside.
This is especially noticeable in large, multi-figure works, such as, for example, the painting «The Blinding of Samson» (1636, Stadelevsky Art Institute, Frankfurt am Main). At the heart of the canvas is one of the dramatic episodes of biblical stories.
The mighty Samson falls into the hands of his enemies, because of the betrayal of his beloved - the beautiful and insidious Dalilah, who betrayed Samson for reward. The attackers blind him, stabbing his daggers into his eyes. Samson’s heroic body, singled out with a shining bright light, bent in pain. The dynamic composition of the work is saturated with color contrasts of darkness and bright light, emitted by the figure of the strongman, creating a sense of anxiety and horror. Around everything mixed up in a fierce struggle, and in the background one can see the swiftly fleeing Delilah.
According to the latest research, another painting of the master - «Danae» - is closely connected with the painting «The Blinding of Samson». The analysis of the canvases showed an absolutely identical structure, perhaps both of them were cut off from one piece. The works are related not only to the basis and size, but also the composition structure, which gives the works a monumental character due to the fact that the figures on them are depicted in full growth. There is also a version that the artist presented both of these works to Konstantin Heytens - the secretary of Prince Friderik Hendrik, thanks to whom Rembrandt had many orders.
This conjecture is also confirmed by the artist’s letters in which he informs Heitens that he has completed two pictures, which, as a token of gratitude, he would like to present to him. Their plot is not indicated, but most likely, the author had in mind these works.
Such careful studies of the canvas «Danae» (1636, the State Hermitage, St. Petersburg) are not accidental, this picture has become one of the best works of the master, and besides this, it is also the anthem of his love for Saskia. Rembrandt dated the canvas in 1636, but connoisseurs of his work refer the work to a later period. This is due to the fact that for the early period of the master’s work the strength and depth with which this work was written was not yet typical. In the laboratories of the State Hermitage, careful research under X-rays was carried out, which dispelled all doubts: the canvas, indeed, was written in the 1630s, however, in the following decades it was subjected to significant authorial processing.
The composition of paintings based on the story of the ancient Greek myth. King of Argos, father of Danae, daughter entered the tower. But in love with Danae supreme god Zeus still penetrated to her, taking the guise of a shower of gold. With a mixture of shyness and joy (the duality of human nature) Danae strives towards a golden glow. Rembrandt did not portray a picture perfect female body, as was the custom among other artists. His Danae is far from the ideal of perfect beauty, but look at her face, but in him hope, inspiration, it is full of love and faith. Her posture is extremely feminine and gestures filled with trepidation.
Continuing the theme of active discussions ongoing about the picture, it should be noted that in the face of Danae little resemblance to the well-known appearance of Saskia. Fluoroscopy permitted and this riddle. The fact that the painting was not for sale for a long time it was stored in the personal studio of the artist, until its complete bankruptcy, after which all his belongings were confiscated and sold.
Rembrandt kept returning to his favorite work, rewriting it in accordance with a new level of professional pictorial vision or depending on the state of mind and mood. Rewriting features Danae, he gave him the characteristics Gerto Dirks, a maid who lived in his house after his wife’s death, he gave similarity with Hendriko Stoffels. As a result, the face of the heroine is a combination of traits similar artist to women. But the similarity with Saskia, his first love, yet acts much clearer.
The fate of the paintings was not easy, and after Rembrandt’s death. After the sale of the property of the artist, it was replaced by a number of private owners until 1772, when it was purchased by Catherine II. Later she was placed in the hall of the State Hermitage Museum, where it was attacked by a maniac in 1985, which caused the canvas two stab wounds and doused him with acid. Fortunately, restorers still saved masterpiece, save it for the audience.
During the early period of his work, Rembrandt hardly paid attention to the landscape. Only years later, under the heavy yoke of life’s circumstances, the artist turned his attention to the nature and the comfort that it can give a person. Nevertheless, in 1638, the artist creates a beautiful painting «Landscape with stone bridge» (Riksmuzeum, Amsterdam). The web is filled struggle light and shade of color emotion compositions and solutions and overall dynamics.
As if squeezing through dense clouds flow bright sunlight shines on two trees depicted in the central part of the picture. Everything else - the people in the boat, hurrying home, fearing starting storms, the bridge across the river, plunging into the twilight. The single fragment scene, illuminated by the sun, visible outlines rickety old fence, leaves and a passing person.
Sadly, fame and material prosperity did not last long for the time of Rembrandt. Works of the great masters was very different from the works of fashion Dutch artists. And as you know, it makes its own fashion tastes of the bourgeoisie, the former while the most numerous and successful class in the Netherlands. Rembrandt did not want to indulge in any fashion trends, it is clearly seen the way in art, filled with deep individual characteristics. The main theme of the artist’s creativity has always been a man of his external life and secret desires, fantasies and life without artificiality, it is what it is.
Realistic style of the artist’s contemporaries confused its naked truth. This led to the inevitable conflict between the master and the bourgeois society. The first major clash of Rembrandt and public opinion was because of a large order for a group portrait of the Amsterdam rifle company, under the leadership of Lieutenant Willem van Reytenberga and Captain Frans Banning Kok, on which the artist worked for about two years.
The large-scale work «Speech shooters Company of Captain Frans Banning Coca» (or «Night Watch», Riksmuzeum, Amsterdam) completed a master in 1642, depicts a memorable historic event, presumably part of Amsterdam shooters in the red carpet of the French queen Marii Medichi in 1639.
The painting depicts a company of Captain Kok, which comes out of the dark space filled with bright light foreground. Each character is busy with his grandfather, it gives the impression that episode snatched by chance. The arrows in the picture clean and dismantle their peaks, someone gives orders, actively gesticulating bearer unfolds checkered cloth. In the right part of the painting is an old man, rataplan, at his feet a dog barks. These diverse activities, like creating a slight sense of chaos, full of noise and dynamics, left a very vivid impression.
Overall color palette is quite dark cloth, diluted only two bright yellow spots: in the center of the right - figure low man - Lieutenant Willem van Reytenberga, and right - a little girl in a yellow dress. Arrows shown interspersed with passers-by, which gives the impression of a certain confusion. Only Captain Kok, leaning on his cane, absolutely calmly talking to someone.
The idea to depict Rembrandt group of people, united by a common impulse of civil feelings, alas, was not understood and not accepted by society Amsterdam. Arrow Payment order to get on the web, are unhappy that in the picture there are complete strangers. And even more of their outraged that some customers face were obscured by other figures.
This picture was a turning point in the artist’s life. While Rembrandt wrote the canvas, from tuberculosis, he died of his beloved wife Saskia, who was only thirty years. Perhaps this event also influenced the artist on canvas a little girl whose face is somewhat reminiscent of the young wife of the painter.
A large and controversial public outcry about the «Night Watch» by Rembrandt knocked popularity, which has since become the only fall. Decrease in the number of orders, the students left. In the life of the master came very difficult period.
Confused and frustrated Rembrandt began to seek solitude and solace in nature. As a consequence, the master much carried away by the scenery, which was previously attached no importance. The state of mind of the painter can be estimated from the species that he chose for his paintings - it was not at all spectacular views, and the quiet, modest, secluded corners.
In addition to painting, in a huge heritage occupy a significant place of Rembrandt’s etchings and drawings, executed a master with no less a talent than his paintings. The artist created prints in the technique of etching. The technique in scratching needle pattern on a metal board covered with lacquer, which at the end is processed acids. Then, the varnish is removed from the board and lines burnt in acid metal fill paint. After that, the board made marks on wet paper under pressure. And the way the engraving, and the resulting print is called etching. In total, the master created about three hundred etchings etching, belonging to the world’s greatest achievements in the field of graphics. Also, to have survived about a thousand drawings of the artist.
An example of stunning graphics Rembrandt is his symbolic bright etching «Three Trees» (1643, a collection J. de Bruijn). The left side of the engravings printed numerous vertical lines, creating the impression of rapid flowing streams of rain. The right and the central part of the etching is not riddled with strokes from the sky and that the entire space of the composition appear shining, spacious, open. So the artist has displayed the symbolic struggle and the inevitable triumph of light over darkness. Peeled and if the rebirth of nature, creates a life-affirming and optimistic. Three trees, towering on the right side of the composition, seem to be the axis of the world, life-giving beginning - so fully and clearly embodied in them all that is around you: in the thick-set trunks - the power of patient land; in the flutter of leaves on the branches - voluntary aspiration air.
Despite the enthusiasm for engraving, Rembrandt never ceased to improve and owls painting style. In the 40 years of his graphic techniques become more diverse, composite construction bolder flavor - richer and more temperamental, there prevail bright colors of red, brown and golden colors. The predominant themes remain the Bible and the Gospels, which reveal common human qualities: maternal and conjugal love, suffering, mercy, kindness. An example is the painting «The Holy Family and Angels» (1645, The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg), it is impregnated with a surprising tenderness and love, in which divine and earthly intertwined.
Read the book Virgin Mary interrupted to correct blanket on the baby, close it by an extremely bright light. Dame gesture filled with infinite love and care. Jesus was sleeping sweetly, his face is always lit with a divine radiance. On the background of the picture runs the husband of Mary. This episode in the life of a young family might seem banal, if not soaring in the skies angels.
In 1647 Rembandt creates a dramatic picture with a strong eroticism «Susanna and the Elders» (State Museum, Berlin). Susanna goes to the pool, located in her garden, suddenly come out of hiding two elders, who begin to decline for a Woman to share with them a bed. They threaten Susanna that otherwise would perjure that Susanna, committed adultery with another man. She flatly refuses. Frightened, she is trying to cover their nakedness a veil, but one of the villains of his tears, while continuing to aggressively try to persuade her. Red shoes left by Susanna near baths, obviously, is a symbol of eroticism Dutch art of the XVII century.
Another product on the biblical story becomes painting «Supper at Emmaus» (Louvre, Paris), written by the master in 1648. The plot selected classic - a meeting of the Risen Christ and his disciples. But Rembrandt’s version, the web has a deep psychological meaning. Jesus sits in the center of the table in the restaurant, bathed in warm light, his gaze calm and focused. We almost do not see apostles persons accompanying Christ - one of them will turn his back, the second hardly distinguishable. But the artist draws a detailed face of the waiter - a young man, gives guests a meal. Gentle boy, in his whole posture gently and reverence for the dear guests. So the artist emphasizes that random person meeting with Christ is more important than who knew him during his life, because God chooses among any of his followers.
Unconditional love for humanity is impregnated and the work of «Christ Healing the rich» (1649, a collection J. de Bruijn), which has a second name - «Leaf hundred guilders.» Here we see Christ standing in an abandoned house, immersed in semidarkness. It is surrounded by a lot of innocent people - the elderly, children, the poor, the crippled. In slightly feathered heroes faces reflected pain, doubt, need faith. Master perfectly conveys the play of light and shadow. Etching was popular, there are accounts that his prints were sold at a very good price.
In 1653, Rembrandt, taking orders from wealthy collector A. Ruffo, creates a painting «Aristotle before the Bust of Homer» (Metropolitan Museum, New York). The picture stood out against the background of pictorial art in the Netherlands. Painters of the time in accordance with the mode, and wrote in light colors, light, smooth, flat, almost transparent strokes. Therefore, the wizard, who loved the rich colors, rich texture, color contrasts poorly perceived by the public. Not wanting to change their own individual style and lost the support of the demand, the painter lived on the brink of ruin.
In addition to the lack of demand for creative Rembrandt had many problems in his personal life. After the death of his wife, the artist became interested in the nanny of his young son Titus - Gerto Dirks, this relationship ended in a big scandal, after which Gerto ever left the house painter.
Over time, Rembrandt was once again the focus of public outrage. In 1649, the artist became interested in twenty-five maid Hendrickje Stoffels, who lived in his house. Painter was in no hurry to legalize their relationship so as not to lose the right to dispose of the inheritance of the deceased spouse, that he wanted to save his son Titus. In response, the church council excommunicated Hendrickje Amsterdam by evening communion, demanding an end to the shameful fornication. But the woman did not give up Rembrandt, and even bore him a daughter, Cornelia.
The artist dedicated to his new love some of his canvas, including «Portrait Hendriko Stoffels ’and’ Young woman bathing in the creek.»
In the film «Young woman bathing in the creek» (1654, National Gallery, London) character displayed in a light dress, free drop down to her shoulders. She cautiously enters the river, lifting up her skirt above her knees. Naked parts of her body painted with great skill. On the face of a young woman plays the quiet, full of tenderness smile. Hendriko looks like he does not know that is a model for his own wife at this moment. She did not tense, but not taken by surprise. Facial features are calm and relaxed.
In the same 1654 Rembrandt paints a picture «Bathsheba with King David’s Letter» (Louvre, Paris), which is considered one of the most beautiful paintings of the artist. At the core of the product - the story of the Old Testament, which tells how one ruler of Israel, David saw from the roof of his palace bathing Woman: «And he saw from the roof of a naked woman; and the woman was very beautiful. And David sent to find out who this woman is? And said unto him, Is not this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliama, wife Urni Hepyanina. And David sent servants to take her... «(II Kings). The plot selected by Rembrandt, tells us a story about blood crimes, adultery, and divine wrath. Bathsheba received a letter from David, she holds it in her hands, in anticipation of future guilt (contradictory person). A perfect body is literally steeped in character, bathed in the light of the composition and color solutions paintings felt the inevitability of fate.
With no flow of orders and deprived of virtually all students, the artist as a young man, has become a lot of writing their relatives, neighbors, acquaintances. During this period there have been many canvases devoted to older people who have enough free time for the hours of posing.
One of these works is the «Portrait of an Old Man in Red» (1652, The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg). Old age in the interpretation of Rembrandt - this is not a wilting life, a worthy end. The appearance of the hero, with his face covered with numerous wrinkles, shows wisdom and experience. All events in life leaves its mark: one - the wound on the heart, the other - the wrinkles on the face. In the calm eyes of the old man is reflected the eternal memory of all that he had seen in his life that survived, as lamented what rejoiced. A large calloused hands show how much he had done before leaving.
Painting «Portrait of an elderly woman» (The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg), written in the same year, shows us a heroine, humbly folded her hands in her lap. In her eyes betrays fatigue from everyday worries.
Rembrandt enjoyed working thoughtfully, patiently and meticulously, sometimes spending his work on two - three months, endlessly tinkering with them, again and again imposing a dense, rich colors of pigment. Rembrandt paint rubbed into the ground, achieving the effect of deep space, boldly sculpted faces and hands of the heroes rather thick colorful mass. As he wrote one of the biographers of the artist Arnold Houbraken, «some of his heroes could literally» pick his nose «- of paint were applied so thickly.»
In 1656 Rembrandt declared bankrupt, and his house, as well as all the property two years later, were sold for a song. In 1660 the painter had to settle in the poorest quarter of the artists on the far outskirts of Amsterdam. Saved from starvation only grown-up son, Titus, opened his own business for the sale of works of art. Rembrandt and his new wife helped him as best they could.
Rare still lifes by Rembrandt, clearly refers to the period of his gloomy reflection, since almost all of them clearly shows theme sad doom of flora and fauna, in which the artist has seen the association with human life.
Cloth «A split bovine carcass» (1655, Louvre, Paris) is an excellent example of this unfortunate still life. The movie is full of dead silence, there is no hint of life or dynamics. In an empty room under the ceiling hung in split carcass of the bull. Perhaps yesterday is unsuspecting of anything animal grazing on a green meadow, and today it is permanently deprived of his life. All life on earth has its own time, which still come sooner or later.
In the same period, it was created the painting «The Polish Rider» (1655, Frick Collection, New York). The figure of the rider, as well as the painting itself, has caused a lot of disputes concerning, including the authorship of the work. young man clothes, hat, trimmed with fur coat and give it a certain theatricality that was not characteristic of Rembrandt’s painting style. The suit looks more like the east and to the Polish relationship has not. Then what is the name? Apparently, the work subsequently acquired Poles. But there is one «but»: in 1654 in Amsterdam was published a pamphlet «The Polish Rider», which protects the sect, to which, according to numerous testimonies, belonged artist. Horse shows are very clumsy, that does not fit with the fact that Rembrandt could write like an animal.
The strict composition «Blessing of Jacob» (full title - «Jacob blesses Joseph’s sons, Manasseh and Ephraim», 1656, Picture Gallery, Kassel) presented a ceremonial event - the blessing the elder Iakovom Vilkov. The web is written in the style inherent to Rembrandt - with bold, broad strokes, bright rich colors. The image of Jacob filled grandeur and dignity. Slightly propped up in bed, a light gesture, he comes to the head of her granddaughter. Both child in quivering delight silenced by the bed. Next to the Patriarch is his wife, who was watching the scene in awe. Red velvet blanket in the foreground extraordinarily animates the canvas and brought him notes of solemnity and significance of the moment.
Losing the house property, a rich collection of paintings of world painting, Rembrandt wrote near and dear to my heart the people - a son and Hendriko to help and support him in difficult moments of life.
One of the best work is pathetic, «Portrait of the son of Titus reading» (about 1656 Art - History Museum, Vienna). Before us is a living embodiment of youth, freshness and enthusiasm. The boy lives in the world of books, fantasy and wonderful dreams. Face enthusiastically reading Titus running sparkling sunbeams, smile playing on his lips. Facial features and red hair boy resemble his mother Saskia.
With a great sense of warmth and tenderness of the artist wrote «Portrait Hendriko Stoffels» (about 1656, State Museum, Berlin). After the destruction of the painter finally able to combine legal marriage with his beloved. They married sometime in 1660, as many documents relating to this period, Hendriko already referred to as Rembrandt’s wife.
In the portrait, young pretty woman standing in a home clothes near a window opening. Her eyes directed forward, perhaps she is waiting for a loved one who is about to come. Cloth perfectly reflects the eternal feminine share: waiting, seeing, meeting friends and taking care of them.
Painting «The Evangelist Matthew and the Angel» (1661, Louvre, Paris), Matthew shows us, in the interpretation of Rembrandt. Here he stands before us as a strong, courageous man with a great life experience. Now, old age, he sits at his desk and writes the Gospel with the words of an angel. The work clearly reflected the philosophical message of the author - a man born, passes through the meal, he works, is happy to be suffering, his face covered with wrinkles, the body withers, and then comes death.
In fact, as a gentle and caring angel put his hand on the shoulder of an old man, it reflects the idea of the artist, it is important for all of us in old age to feel near her hometown, a loved one, which will take care of us.
In 1660, Rembrandt finally gets a new large order from the Amsterdam shop suknodelov. Artist paints a remarkable portrait of a group of elders cloth shop called «syndics» (Amsterdam, Riksmuzeum). Describing his characters, the artist focuses on their professional honesty and modesty. Five syndics and a servant (slave role is not felt in the web) looking at the viewer’s attentive gaze. Heroes face expresses honesty, decency, intelligence.
French painter, art historian and writer Eugene Fromapgen perfectly described Rembrandt’s ability to create extraordinary landscape composition, «they are busy, though not move, talk, though without moving his lips. Nobody poses, all live. «
Strict black and white robes of heroes diluted golden brown panels and a red cloth. On the table in front of them is an open book - shop Charter containing quality standards of clothiers Amsterdam. The book explicitly introduced at the request of cloth rubs customers, however, the author was able to avoid the feeling of a plot contrived, full of depth and substance.
The surviving evidence, this picture, as his time sensational «Night Watch», caused a lot of debate and controversy. X-rays showed that the canvas has undergone two major processing - in 1661 and 1662, respectively. The exact reasons why the product was altered, did not reach us.
The fate of the great artist, over the years, became sadder. Demonstrative rejection of creativity, constantly deteriorating financial situation and the death of two people closest (in 1663 Hendriko died, and in 1668 the artist had lost his only son Titus), strongly influenced the state of mind of the artist. However, Rembrandt never doubted the loyalty of their own way.
Despite the trials, the loss of family, bankruptcy, reducing the number of pupils and the number of orders, dire financial situation, he continued to create, creating new masterpieces truly realistic art.
Later works by Rembrandt are deprived of traffic, noise, effects. Plots are calm, as if it was at that moment, he snatched the artist of the characters’ lives, the world around them froze, all froze in anticipation of the fateful moment. These paintings include a picture of «David and Uriah» (about 1665, the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg), which depicts a man coming out of the tent with a letter lying in his bosom. In the letter - the death sentence David, who, knowing this beforehand, looking at him humbly and silently.
The greatest masterpieces created before his death
Painting «The Jewish Bride» (about 1666, Riksmuzeem, Amsterdam) refers to the greatest masterpieces. The web has caused much controversy. Some thought that the painting depicts one of the biblical couple: Isaac and Rebekah, Rachel and Jacob, or Ruth and Boaz; others have seen here the artist’s son and his bride Titusa Magdalena shaft Leia, and others thought it was a portrait painter of contemporary poet Miguel de Barrios and his wife.
It is generally accepted one, no matter who the characters pose for Rembrandt, this work is one of the most touching and unusual images of the couple. Another great artist, Van Gogh Vansent so described it: «This tender, for which the hidden pain, the infinite, half-open, superhuman, and at the same time such a natural.»
Characters of the film are dressed in orange-red and golden yellow color, covered with smooth intense light, symbolizing the bright flame of their love. All men pose carefully bent to his wife, tenderly embracing her shoulder, touching her breasts with the other hand, he speaks of the infinite care and tenderness to his woman, love and admiration for her. In turn, the girl tenderly touches his hand with his fingertips, it is calm for their fate entrusted to her new husband.
The second greatest masterpieces, written at the end of his life, was painting «The Return of the Prodigal Son» (1668, The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg). It was a brilliant end of the creative ways Rembrandt.
If the «Jewish Bride» was the anthem of the earth, carnal love, this picture tells the story of a higher order of love, full of remorse, acceptance, forgiveness, of the overwhelming love which is possible only between a parent and his child. Coloring picture selected very subdued, with a predominance of dark colors. Only raincoats father embraced his son, and standing right men burn with fire. In the role of the prodigal son, Rembrandt saw himself all his life. Even the work of «Self-Portrait with Saskia on his knees» was originally called «The Feast of the Prodigal Son.» This artist loved parable was the basis of several drawings.
picture composition is simple. In the foreground, kneeling son, in the hope of his forgiveness bowed his head at the feet of his father. The two do not look at each other, do not talk, do not see eye, but in themselves they concluded poses enormous intimacy and love, which can only be between two native people, infinitely dear to each other. The artist writes worn soles of old shoes son, that we understand how come a long way he did before being brought before his exhausted father, embracing him with his work-worn hands. Expressive and people surrounding the protagonists characters are very expressive and full of awe.
The greatest artist Harmensz Van Reyn Rembrandt, who left the world the rich cultural heritage in the form of more than six hundred paintings, drawings and a half thousand three hundred etchings, died October 4, 1669 in oblivion and misery. He is buried in the cemetery of Westerkerk in Amsterdam, close to those who most loved in life: Saskia, Hendriko and Titus.
All the vicissitudes of the creative and personal life of the great artist could not break his spirit and undermine efficiency. Like the Renaissance genius, Titian, Rembrandt worked almost until the last days of his life, constantly creating masterpieces, trying to penetrate into the essence of human life and the soul of the man who all his life has been the protagonist of his stunning paintings. The invaluable contribution made to the Dutch art of Rembrandt, never change the selected creative way, made a real revolution in the national and international art and put it on a path of continuous evolution.