Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) automatic translate
February 25, 1841 in the town of Limoges in the south of France in the family of a tailor the fourth child was born - a boy named Pierre Auguste. A few years later, the whole family Renoir moved to Paris. From an early age, Auguste was noted for his excellent painting skills, as well as his magnificent voice. The leader of the church choir, where the young Renoir was singing, even advised his parents to think about his son’s musical career (by the way, it was Charles Gounod, who later wrote the famous opera Faust). But the family of the future artist was not rich, and his father saw for his son a different future - a prestigious and well-paid work of the artist on porcelain.
So, in 1854, at the age of thirteen, Auguste entered the porcelain factory. This profession was liked by the young man, he quickly learned and began to paint cups and saucers, and then whole sets. At the same time, the young man often went to the Louvre, where he painted, inspired by the ancient sculpture and painting of the artist of the Rococo era Francois Boucher, who wrote light genre scenes. Over time, Renoir began to copy them in the porcelain painting.
The young man earned well for his age. To advance in his career, he enrolled in a porcelain factory where he began to paint under the guidance of a sculptor and colleague at a porcelain factory, which foretold a brilliant future in the field of art.
The artist’s youth
Unfortunately for the young Renoir, but fortunately for everyone else, the technical progress of the nineteenth century was marked by an almost total refusal of manual production. Painting on porcelain was replaced by printed drawings. The buyers and owners of the workshops were attracted by the fact that the printing equipment provided the production of absolutely identical products. Over time, hand-painted ceased to be appreciated.
The young man, who had come to despair at first, tried to paint products with great speed, which did not bring him success. As a result, he had to look for other earnings. Time has come for temporary works with the constant mastering of various techniques. Renoir then dealt with the painting of fans and the walls of Parisian cafes, he accidentally settled himself as a master in painting the curtains. By the way, he mastered this technique in perfection and again began to earn well, but the artist did not want to stop there, as this occupation was definitely not the limit of his dreams. All the money earned Renoir postponed to a new dream - teaching painting in a special school at the Academy of Arts.
At the end of 1862, Auguste Renoir realized his cherished desire and enrolled in the Paris School of Fine Arts. There he was in the studio of the artist Charles Glaire, adhering to the academic style. The young man already had a solid experience, but conscientiously attended all classes and studied academic design. However, Glare did not immediately like how Renoir worked with color: even then the artist used juicy bright colors, which was not welcomed in the academic environment. One day the teacher even expressed his fears that his free-lover student would become the second representative of French Romanticism, a brilliantly working color and a real idol of Renoir, but in the eyes of artists of an academic nature, a former «apostate». Auguste was not the only young artist in Gleir’s studio, trying to rebel against the academic manner and find his own new way. He soon became friends with Claude Mops, Alfred Sisley and Frederick Bazil, who had very close views on painting and hotly discussed the possibilities of its revival, which was understood as the liberation from the shackles of academicism. A little later, Camille Pissarro joined them.
The training did not last long, only a year later Renoir was forced to leave the school of painting, because he could no longer pay for it. He replaced employment in the studio with work in the open air, along with his new friends, who soon also unexpectedly completed their art education due to the fact that Gleir’s workshop was closed. All the comrades of Renoir were similar not only in their desire to turn the world of art, but also in the fact that they could hardly find means for food and materials for work.
In 1866, Renoir painted one of his early still-lifes, «Still Life with a Large Flower Vase» (Vogt Art Museum, Cambridge), written in the spirit of Dutch still lifes and giving a joyful impression with its bright but gentle and yet juicy colors. In the same year he creates the painting «Mother Anthony’s Inn» (1866, National Museum, Stockholm). Unlike flowering still-lifes, the color range of this work is rather dark, with a dominant black color. Visual expressiveness is built on contrast: the black suits of the visitors of the inn emphasize the snow-white tablecloth on the table, and also contrast sharply with the white-collar workers’ bright spots, the servant’s apron, the bright wide-brimmed hat of one of the heroes and the white dog lying under his feet.
The work clearly demonstrates the skill and principles of Renoir in composing the composition with the help of color: a white tablecloth is wrapped in a ring consisting of black figures, which are not allowed to blend in the total mass of white accessories. A special harmony in the distribution of colors is attached to the application of white spots literally «in checkerboard pattern». The picture characterizes the artist as an excellent portrait painter, and a magnificent master of still life: the entire table arrangement is written out with great skill, the remnants of food and utensils are extremely realistic.
A year later, the artist paints a portrait of his beloved girl Lisa Treo, with whom Renoir met for more than seven years, but never married. In the end, Lisa broke off their relationship and, just a few months later, married a young architect.
Nevertheless, the canvas «Liza» (1867, the Folkvang Museum, Essen) was accepted for participation in the Salon of 1868, where it was positively appreciated by the audience, which was a great success for an artist not yet known to anybody. In the picture the girl is depicted in full length, wearing a white dress, shaded by a wide black belt and a black umbrella from the sun. The bright dress of the girl is as if covered in bright sunlight, and on the shoulders and face of the heroine, covered with an umbrella, glare shines. This thin black and white game continues on the birch trunk behind Lisa and on the grass at her feet, where the dark shadows abruptly border on the sun-drenched areas.
In 1867, Renoir creates another painting, for which Lisa Treo posed - «Diana the Hunter» (National Gallery of Art, Washington). Due to the moral principles of the era, the artist could not depict a modern woman naked, so he put a hunting bow in her hands and called the picture a mythological name, giving his work the right to an official existence, while avoiding the scandal that caused the picture of 1863 «Breakfast on the grass «Edward Manet.
The artist, who was keenly interested in the portrait genre, often wrote his Impressionist friends, depicting them in familiar surroundings for everyday activities, thus combining a portrait with genre painting and creating documentary sources telling us about the life of these people.
The painting «Portrait of Frederick Basile» (1867, the Musee d’Orsay, Paris) shows us young Basil occupied, of course, with painting. The artist, turned to the viewer in profile, is focused on his work. Stylistically, the work is surprisingly complete, partly thanks to the almost monochrome color scheme. It resembles a skilful black and white photo in which volumes are modeled with the help of chiaroscuro. A year later, Renoir creates a paired «Portrait of Alfred Sisley with his wife» (1868, the Museum of Valraf-Rihartz, Cologne). On the canvas, we see how carefully Sisley is attentive to his young wife. His whole posture expresses a willingness to help, support and help a woman, and also his love for her and tenderness. A young married couple depicted on a canvas, as if exudes a light of happiness and love.
Renoir’s work «The Algerian Woman» (1870, National Art Gallery, Washington) was a tribute to the admiration and enthusiasm of the work of Eugene Delacroix. In it, the artist painted his Lisa in the form of an odalisque, a bright, luxurious eastern woman languidly reclining on pillows, dressed in sumptuous outfits and beckoning to herself. On this painting, Renoir seems to revel in color. The figure of a half-lying heroine occupies almost the entire space of the canvas, it seems that the picture lacks air.
Adherence to impressionism
Auguste Renoir quite often worked together with another bright representative of young impressionists, Claude Monet. The artists painted pictures from one nature, watched the light and shadow in nature and studied the possibilities of the palette in the transmission of these effects. An example of their union are the famous canvases «Frogs» - paintings written not only from one nature, but also named the same. The plot of the paintings is simple - a floating cafe with a cheering audience on the background of wooden boats waiting for their passengers.
Renoir, an optimist by nature, through all his creativity carried a love for the display of the holiday of life, dancing or resting ladies and gentlemen. The artist tried not to pay attention to the dark side of life, he sincerely believed that art should give people wonderful moments of enjoyment, and not perform the role of edification or boring teachings.
Renoir’s «Froggy» (1869, National Museum, Stockholm) at first glance seems a sketch, and not a complete work, framing the scene as it were random. To a certain extent, this was the case, the scene is depicted exactly as the artist saw it, without a complicated thoughtful composition, balancing plans and constructing a perspective.
The artist pursued a completely different goal: to capture and convey the atmosphere of fun and carefree warm summer day, catch glare of the light on the water, solar reflections on the ladies’ dresses (although the ladies of these people can be called with a stretch: most of the heroines of the painting are maidens of easy command, reputation). Working with a living nature required writing a picture in a very short time, therefore, Renoir and Monet worked in a special technique of writing - by sweeping strokes that only indicated the figures of people and outlined the surrounding environment, but without wasting out the writing of the details. This new style, so to speak, the unspoken art did not like the public, and the looking careless artistic manner of the young impressionists evoked censure.
But it was the transfer of fleeting sensations from the state of nature that was the essence of the new movement in painting. Impressionism was born in the open air. Constant changes in lighting were very important for those who in the future, at first ironically and abusively call Impressionists. This is an unusual desire to convey the impressions of an elusive, changeable reality and has made a clear distinction between their creativity and «dead» academic painting.
Classical academic painting existed only in the context of a narrow spectrum of mythological, religious and historical themes, not recognizing the images of the modern era. This was the art of idealization, the introduction of an artificial internal order and a clear structure. Objects and things on still lifes, landscapes and portraits were portrayed as idealized, and not as the human eye sees them in fact. The dream of the impressionists was to return the painting to a real life. Young Renoir, after Monet began to write in the open air, since only this method allowed to achieve the transfer of natural sunlight, giving the picture the immediacy that is irreversibly lost when working in a workshop for memory. It was the light that became the main «actor» of their paintings. However, unlike Monet, Auguste Renoir was more interested in the human figure placed in this magical light-air environment than nature in itself.
In another of his works - The New Bridge (1872, National Gallery of Art, Washington) Renoir appears before us as a virtuoso master of the city (landscape), ready to carefully write out architectural details and painstakingly build a perspective. Here is a smoother writing style, and the construction of volumes is created using lines, auxiliary drawing. Nevertheless, the city landscape with its wide bridge and walking public is visible as if through a haze, all outlines of architectural elements and figures of characters are devoid of clear contours, all lines are very soft. The artist captured the sun-drenched city, and the light-pierced air.
Portrait of his friend and colleague «Monet reads» (1872, the Museum of Marmoten, Paris) Renoir executed in dark tones, making it almost monochrome. Nevertheless, the image of the artist’s friend turned out to be very lively, he showed Monet exactly what he himself saw every day: in a hat, with a fresh newspaper and a smoking pipe in his teeth.
Renoir studies the effects of lighting, plays out the highlights and shadows of Monet’s face and the newspaper in his hands. Virtuously diluting the overall dark color of the canvas with warm shades on the hands, lyceums in the back of the chair, and also with the white color of the newspaper. So the artist achieves a harmonious composition, lined with color. The fabric of the suit is almost mixed with a dark background, as if absorbed by the surrounding semi-darkness. It was this effect that the painter sought to transmit the atmosphere of late reading, in low light.
The picture of 1872, «Portrait of Claude Monet’s Wife on the Sofa» (private collection, Lisbon), was unusually bright and impressive. Young Camille Monet (nee Donsier) settled on the couch in a beautiful blue dress, she openly poses for the artist, as though favorably allowing herself to draw. Here Renoir does not try to carefully draw the surrounding environment, he only conveys a sense of calm and freedom of the young mistress who found the day time for rest.
As a true connoisseur of female beauty, the artist nakedly admires the youth and freshness of the heroine of the canvas. As if in a sketch Renoir only outlines the sofa armrests, one of which is supported by Camilla, and a tea table with a cup set on the edge. It is due to the lack of a geometric pattern on the couch and clear lines that differentiate its design, the sofa seems unusually soft. The contours of the objects are blurred, which gives the room atmosphere an effect of extraordinary lightness and airiness, Renoir seems to show some intangible environment from the sunlight that unites all the objects in the room. And only Camille’s black hair, eyebrows and eyes stand out against the general light background, attracting the viewer’s eyes.
In the early 70’s Renoir spent a lot of time in Paris, in Argenteuil, where during this period lived Monet, friends often worked together, one of the most favorite subjects they had sailing boats on the Seine. This theme is devoted to the work of the Regatta near Argenteuil (1874, National Gallery of Art, Washington). In the painting, the artist again used the sketch style of the letter with the help of quick wide strokes. Only this style allowed to capture the landscape, grab the momentary state of the changeable nature.
The sky in the painting is written unusually dynamically, with ragged pink clouds, which seemed to absorb all the sunlight. It seems as if it overturns to the Seine, reflecting the pattern of clouds and snow-white sails of boats, which in turn absorb the reflexes of heavenly illumination and become pinkish. Renoir paints the picture not with lines, but with color spots.
The composition of the painting «The Path in the High Grass» (1874, the Museum d’Orsay, Paris) strongly echoes the landscape of «The Field of Poppies by Argenteuil» (1873, the Musee d’Orsay, Paris) by Claude Monet. Auguste Renoir portrays people strolling along a path that drowns in a high field grass. Like Monet, to create a sense of movement, the artist repeats the figures of people and at the top of the hill and at its base.
Theater and nudity
Like many artists, Renoir attracted the theater. Here you can find a variety of scenes for paintings, watch thousands of people with their characters and fates, take note of curious things and unusual skits. The artist is also interested in the audience in the auditorium, and the actors, whose bright lives pass beyond the ramp.
One of the works of Renoir, dedicated to the theatrical scene - «The Lodge» (1874, Gallery Courtyard Institute, London) was presented by the artist at the first Impressionist exhibition, sensational and failed, which was organized in the same 84th year in the studio of photographer Nadar. The picture was a pair portrait of a lady and a gentleman, who sat in a theatrical box, waiting for the performance to start. The woman looks at the viewer directly and calmly, her companion, on the contrary, sits, leaning back, and someone looks out among the crowd with binoculars. The lady is a little sad, and the gentleman, it seems, completely forgot about her presence. The figure depicts the heroine closer to the foreground of the picture, her face brightly lit and if looking for a dialogue with the audience, as a hero removed from the viewer, and by his companion twilight lodge. The artist managed to surprisingly easy to place semantic accent in the composition by means of light and shadow.
The exhibition of the same Impressionist exhibition was attended by two other works by the artist: «Dancer» (1874, National Gallery of Art, Washington) and «Parisienne» (1874, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff).
Painting «Dancer» shows us a young ballerina in air-blue dress. She stands in freestyle IV-th position, reminding us a little about the work of Edgar Degas created many paintings on the favorite theme of the theater. However, the heroine Degas depicted in the dance or bow, they had not posed it. Degas painted them - as it is now removed paparazzi - imprinted at an unexpected moment in how to randomly get perspective, not focusing on psychology.
Ogyust Renuar worked in a different way. On his canvases depicts the dancer does not dance and in a scenic image, as it were, in the role itself. A big role in the portrait played a little sad eyes and the attractiveness of the young girl, her timidity and tenderness. The picture is different pastel colors and soft contours - as opposed to crisp works by Degas, always use the line as a primary expressive tool.
When it comes to the next picture of the master - «Parisienne», many critics lead lines of Alexander Blok, which he wrote after more than thirty years after the establishment of the panel:
«And every evening, at the appointed hour,
(Or is it just a dream to me?)
Girlish figure, swathed in silk,
window moving the fog.
And slowly passing between the drunken,
Always, without satellites, one,
Breathing spirits and mists,
She sits by the window... «
The upper part of the body of a young woman outlined quite clearly, while lightweight skirt of her dress as if sewn from fabric air. So the artist achieves the effect of the existence of a favorite figure in a special light and air, thanks to which the heroine as if coming out of the haze. Delightful appeal of the image is achieved by the fact that this elusive foggy Mademoiselle completely open to dialogue with the audience.
The following year, Renoir creates his famous painting «Nude in sunlight» (1875, Musee d’Orsay, Paris). The innovative idea of the artist was to write nudity in nature, showing how the sun’s glare and reflections from the leaves of the tree are playing on her soft skin. The idea was good, and moreover, a truly impressionistic. However, the results caused a sharp rejection of both the critics and the public. According to the canons of traditional painting, the naked female body had to write idealized inventing spectacular «staging» posture model, and her skin had to be perfectly smooth and exceptionally warm shades. Renoir, instead of smooth skin showed patches of light and reflections, called reviewers corpse spots on the decomposing body.
In 1876, the painter creates one more painting on this theme. In the painting «Nude» (Pushkin Museum. A. S. Pushkina, Moscow) Renoir showed himself as a true connoisseur of feminine beauty. He just admires her artist’s model, as if caressing brush her body. At this time, he wrote her a young thin skin perfectly smooth and exceptionally shades of pink. Compositional work is reminiscent of the painting «Bathers» Jean Auguste Dominika Engra (1807). The artist then still come back to Ingres (the former, by the way, for example Edgara Dega) during the reconsideration of his own creative path.
Master regularly participated in the following exhibitions of the Impressionists. In the third of these, in 1877, he was among other works presented «Ball at the Moulin de la Galette» and «Swing».
The motif of the swing was unusual for French painting of the XVIII century, in fact, he was absent. It is not known what prompted Renoir on this subject, but there were indications that he was familiar with the eponymous painting by Fragonard, who wrote it as a «gallant scene» having hidden meaning enclosed in attractive prospects opening sitting on the ground cavalry at flying apart in the wind skirts swinging ladies. «Swing» (Musee d’Orsay, Paris) Renoir painted in 1876, are essentially the same «gallant scenes», borrowed from the Rococo, but written in a modern story and not frivolous connotation.
On the canvas we see a young man standing with his back to the viewer (which is unacceptable in traditional art in itself), it shakes slightly wistful girl who stands on a wooden swing. Near depicts a man and a little girl tenderly and trustingly looking at the lady. By the way, children’s images occupy a separate page in the entire work of the artist, but more on that later.
Overall picture of the «Ball at the Moulin le la Galette» (1876, l’Orse Museum, Paris) was written in the Parisian hill of Montmartre, which in those days still had three-preserved wooden mill. One of them was the restaurant «Le Moulin de la Galette», famous for delicious meatballs (moulin - mill, galette - cutlet). The restaurant regularly arranged dances, which brings together the most diverse Parisian public, among whom were young artists.
Such places were ideal for Renoir, loves to write juicy, bright glare of light dancing on the ladies’ dresses and suits their cavaliers. The artist loved to carry on a canvas scene of such a celebration of life and a carefree youth, characterized by unusually joyful and bright atmosphere. His paintings depicting the local audience - a kind of document of the epoch: they are forever captured the Paris area, where a good time the middle class of the time. The artist has devoted a large canvas such everyday story, which was very unusual for that time.
For a long time the artist’s paintings did not sell because the audience refused to recognize the art of impressionism. Nevertheless, the exhibition allows the plant to useful contacts. Through them, Renoir got some good orders for portraits, helped the painter somehow make ends meet. Enjoyable and beneficial for the artist had a meeting with spouses Charpentier. The fact that Madame Charpentier in Paris had its own salon, which was about an interesting crowd: writers, artists, poets and artists. This is where Renoir was an acquaintance with the actress Zhannoy Samari, to which he devoted three portraits.
Wonderfully written, lively and lyrical «Portrait of Jeanne Samary» (1877, Pushkin Museum. A. S. Pushkina, Moscow) shows us the painter’s unconventional approach to building a composition. The young actress relies on chin in his hand, as if in a confidential conversation, it opened a direct view, facing directly into the eyes of the observer, as well as the maximum approximation to the edge shapes, creates an effect close contact of the heroine and the audience. Thanks to this position, the portrait has an ineffable charm and causes a lot of positive emotions.
A year later, the artist creates one more painting with the same title (1878, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg). In it Renoir again writes Jeanne Samaria, but now in full growth. The woman is dressed in a stunning snow-white dress with a train, it is extremely skin-tight shapely figure. But even here, in the ceremonial portrait of the heroine enters into a dialogue with the audience - its posture again directed forward, it is worth a little stooped, sacrificing proud bearing and straight shoulders, for this contact. Its direct open view does not let the observer, and slightly parted lips beckon him.
In the same year, Renoir wrote «Portrait of Madame Charpentier with children» (Metropolitan Museum, New York). The picture is made in the standard «salon» style, is clearly in favor of the very mistress. The special charm of the canvas give two cute children figurines depicted in poses immediate, perfectly conveys the unique children’s plastic, complete with angelic attributes - Swelling hands and feet, soft curls of hair. The overall composition of the newly built with the help of color: the situation is depicted in red and brown tones, the figure of Madame Charpentier stands on its background. The hostess dressed in a black dress with white contrasting insert on the chest from under the hem of her white petticoat peeks, and at her feet is a huge St. Bernard black and white color. And in this black-and-white framed depicted children in pale blue short dress.
Renoir during his lifetime was regarded as an outstanding portrait master. He managed to catch and pass the fleeting mood paintings of heroes. A wonderful example of his work in this genre can serve as «Girl with a Fan» (1881, The State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg). Gentle thoughtful face of a young girl with falling over his forehead hair dark strands written out carefully and smoothly, and the details of the toilet, fan, hands and backgrounds - more gently, with blurred outlines. Background picture left without elaboration, only serves to frame the beautiful appearance of the girl, without distracting the viewer’s attention from the shiny dark eyes, soft skin, and parted lips. In the canvas there is a favorite effect of contrasts, of alternating black and white spots, which is often used as a master: the white portions of the fan - dark cloth dress, white collar - dark hair model. This checkerboard pattern could not be better focuses the viewer’s not delicate flowers model’s face.
Contrary to the opinion of his friends - the Impressionists, Renoir decided to participate in the annual Salon. It was the only way for him to gain fame and useful contacts. Thanks to the efforts of Madame Charpentier, Salon 1879 took two paintings by the artist - «Portrait of Samara» and «Portrait of Madame Charpentier with children.» So Renoir finally announced himself. The audience graciously met the painter, and he began to regularly receive new orders. Since then and until 1882, the artist has not participated in the Impressionist exhibitions. Income Renoir improved so much that in 1881 he was able to afford a lot of traveling to Algeria, Venice, Rome and Pompeii.
At the same grace period Renoir met Aline Sherig, which was the living embodiment of the ideal of feminine beauty of the painter. Alina began to appear in many paintings of the artist, starting with «Breakfast rowers» (1881, Phillips Collection, National Gallery, Washington). Some time later, she even became his wife.
Easy composition paintings «Luncheon of the Boating» Renoir painted in natural light. The plot - another favorite artist as a celebration of life, with courtship gentlemen, carefree young smiling ladies and subtleties of the relationship. Attended the seventh Impressionist exhibition in 1882, along with several Venetian landscape, created by the artist during his travels in Italy. And just a year later, in 1883, the first solo exhibition of Renoir.
The recognition and frustration in your own style
Glory to the artist in the 1880s, has moved beyond France. A respected and respectable Ogyust Renuar began to travel frequently. In 1885, the master and Alina was born their first child - son Pierre. Soon the family moved to Alina’s home in Champagne. In 1886, Renoir creates a portrait of his wife and his young son.
Painting «Motherhood» (Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, FL) have different sings of joy. Carefree amusement Parisian public receded into the background, and all the artist’s attention has shifted to the delights of family life and the happiness of motherhood. Sentimental picture: full of young Alina breastfeeding chubby baby on a background of a rural idyll. The proportions of women sitting on a chair looking a little shorter due to the fact that the artist painted her standing, and his point of view is above the model.
Over time, Ogyust Renuar, the former is already an acknowledged master of Impressionism, became disillusioned with the way he developed the letter. His dissatisfaction drove masters even before the destruction of some of the paintings created. If from the very beginning of his creative career artist sought inspiration and answers to tormenting his questions in a painting Ezhena Delakrua, Zhana Onore Fragonard and Fransua Bushe, contribute to the formation of his artistic personality, he now turned to the works of Jean Auguste Dominika Engra - brilliant academics and neoclassic, masters line, writing seductive naked beauties and extremely delicate female portraits. Also, Renoir began to use the experience of Renaissance masters, whose works have conquered it in Italy.
Despite the change of style, the artist remained faithful to the world the joy, beauty and light of happiness. He never made the sad, philosophical or didactic works. Paired work «Dance in the Village (1882, Musee d’Orsay, Paris),» Dance at Bougival «(1883, Museum of Art, Boston) and» Dance in the City «(1883, Musee d’Orsay, Paris ) became a logical continuation of the topics covered in the work of a painter of the previous years. All three paintings show us the dancing couples, drunken movement, music, and if employees are an extension of the theme of unalloyed happiness and youthful paintings «Ball at the Moulin de la Galette.»
Painting «Dance in the Country» is reminiscent of the early canvas «Portrait of Alfred Sisley and his wife.» In the new work we can see the same tenderness, care and courtesy underlined gentleman embracing his lady. Pose a dancing couple charms immediate plastics and clearly demonstrates the nature of their relationship: a man tenderly in love with his partner, he was keen to oblige her, she basks in his love and care, as in music, dance and absorbed by subjecting their movements leading power partner.
«Dance at Bougival» shows began to move away from the impressionistic manner of writing. It is still visible in the trees and the background of the picture, but the girl’s dress and suit her beau written quite tight and smooth. work atmosphere close to the previous one, there reigns the same spontaneity, but with a hint of hidden emotions - a little girl shyly looks away from their stalls, tries by all means to win her attention.
Partners painting «Dance in the City» is much more restrained in their movements and expression of feelings. Fine suits talk about their high social status. She keeps very straight, not leaning on the shoulder of the partner with the credulity of the common people. Her posture is severe and meets all standards of etiquette. The face of the heroine calm, it does not express the happiness and joy that lit heroine «Dance in the village.» Face of a young man altogether hidden from us.
Painting «Umbrellas» (1881 - National Gallery, London) has become one of the most famous works by Renoir. It was started in the heyday of his hobbies impressionism, and completed five years later, after an acquaintance of the artist with the work of the masters of the Renaissance and rethink their own path in art. The female figures on the left side of the canvas written more gently, while on the right side - there is a clear boundary line. Densely filled with characters of the picture seems devoid of compositional structure, but it is only at first glance. Among randomly flooded street figures passersby can distinguish the diagonal building fabric: the first diagonal starts from the girl’s head in the right corner of the canvas, and then highlights the cane tilted umbrella, and finally ends with the girl’s head, and a man standing behind her on the left side. Line cane umbrella in the hands of the woman accompanying the girls is a second diagonal.
«Umbrella» became the last large painting of the artist, dedicated to the life of the contemporary city. On further choice influenced the art of the Renaissance, have left their mark on the painting style of Renoir. Master until his death remained a singer and a connoisseur of feminine beauty, appetizing forms, delicate skin and sparkling eyes. Painting «The Large Bathers» (1887, Museum of Art, Philadelphia) is a clear indication of the influence of the great masters of the past. Availability contour drawing, classic draperies, finely drawn with delicate skin Female nude body shapes and their arrangement in space are pyramidal clear composition to form a triangle.
However, in the film «After the bath» (1888, private collection), smoothly written nudity girl sitting still has a hint of the old style of the artist. Shadows in the web are impressionistic, colorful, and his background is executed in broad strokes. Yes, and the figure of the heroine of the body Bole soft than the previous product.
The artist is still a lot of traveling. In 1894, in a family of Renoir had a second child - son Jean. And in 1897 there was a small incident. Does not herald itself is no problem. The artist fell off the bike and badly broke his right hand. During recovery, the master learned to write with his left hand. But even after complete healing of fractures, Renoir did not leave persistent severe pain. Thus began the severe arthritis that left the artist during the next twenty years of his life, progressively restricting movement and facial expressions, skryuchivaya fingers, and then did cause paralysis. Alina did everything possible to save her beloved husband, but after each short-term improvement of his condition steadily advancing relapses. On a visit to the painter often visited friends, Renoir himself until the last day of his life did not cease to work. In 1901 he was born his third son Claude, who became the favorite model of the aging artist.
Renoir exhibited in many exhibitions in Paris, New York and London. They brought him deserved fame. And in 1900, the artist became a knight of the Legion of Honor, even in ten years - an officer of the Order.
In 1909, the painter creates two more pair work: «Dancer with castanets» and «Dancer with a tambourine» (both - National Gallery, London), which reveals a clear influence of Renaissance art. Plastic body, calm and contemplative expression there, draperies and abstract bring them closer in style to the frescoes of the great masters of the past. The works are very decorative, like dancers figure descended from an ancient frieze.
Jobs «Gabrielle Rose» (1911, Musee d’Orsay, Paris) is very different from the «classic» portraits of masters. canvas palette has darkened, the model does not bedazzle the eyes and a radiant smile. But clearly seen a study of plastic volumes. But all too early, it is obvious that the aging artist admires smoothness and tenderness of the skin of her character (Gabriel was a relative of his wife and helped her with the upbringing of children).
With the outbreak of World War II on the front ushili Renoir eldest sons, both of them have returned, but wounded. Alina did her best to help their children, but, unable to endure the experiences, has died. Renoir also continued to write, and in a wheelchair, struggling with severe pain in the whole body, until his death on December 2, 1919.
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