Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) automatic translate
Personality and creativity of Leonardo da Vinci has always provoked increased interest. Leonardo was too extraordinary for his time. Books and articles are printed, and feature films and documentaries appear on screens. Art critics turn to scientists and mystics, in an attempt to find the solution to the mystery of the genius of the great master. There is even a separate direction in science that explores the legacy of the painter. In honor of Leonardo da Vinci museums are opened, throughout the world there are incessantly held thematic exhibitions that beat all records of attendance, and «Mona Lisa» looks at the crowds of tourists all day because of armored glass. Real historical facts and legends, scientific achievements and artistic fiction closely intertwined around the name of one genius.
The fate of the great master
The future great artist and scientist was born on April 14, 1452 from the extramarital connection of the well-to-do notary Sir Piero with either a peasant woman or a mistress of a tavern from the town of Vinci. The boy was called Leonardo. Katerina, the artist’s mother’s name, was engaged in raising her son for the first five years of his life, after which the father took the boy to his house.
Although Piero was officially married, he had no other children, except Leonardo. Therefore, the appearance of the child in the house was warmly welcomed. The only thing that the artist was left without, being on full security with his father, is the rights to inheritance. The early years of Leonardo passed serenely, surrounded by the beautiful mountain nature of Tuscany. Admiration and love for his native land, he will carry through all his life, perpetuating his beauty in his landscapes.
The silence and peace of the provincial life ended with the family moving to Florence. Life began to play, zaburlili with all the colors of this metropolis of the time. Managed the city representatives of the Medici family, known for their generosity of patrons who created on their patrimony ideal conditions for the development of the arts.
During their reign, Florence became the cradle of a cultural and scientific revolution known as the Renaissance. Once there, the young Leonardo fell into the very center of events when the city was approaching the apogee of its heyday and glory, the peak of greatness, of which the young artist became an integral part.
But the greatness was ahead, but for now, the future genius needed to be educated. As an illegitimate son, he could not continue the work of his father, as he could become, for example, a lawyer or a doctor. Which, in general, did not damage the fate of Leonardo.
From the earliest years, the young man showed outstanding artistic ability. Pierrot could not ignore this when he made a decision about the fate of his only son. Soon his father gave eighteen-year-old Leonardo to study in a very successful and advanced painting workshop. The painter of the painter was the famous painter Andrea del Verrocchio.
A talented and wide-thinking sculptor and artist, Verrocchio did not preach medieval aesthetic views, but tried to keep pace with the times. He was keenly interested in samples of ancient art, which he considered unsurpassable, in his work he sought to revive the traditions of Rome and Greece. Nevertheless, recognizing and respecting progress, Verrocchio made extensive use of the technical and scientific achievements of his time, thanks to which painting increasingly approached realism.
Flat, schematic images of the Middle Ages retreated, giving way to the desire to completely imitate nature in everything. And for this it was necessary to master the methods of linear and aerial perspective, to understand the laws of light and shadow, which meant the need to possess mathematics, geometry, drawing, chemistry, physics and optics. Leonardo learned from Verrocchio the basics of all exact sciences, while simultaneously mastering the techniques of drawing, modeling and sculpture, acquired the skills of working with gypsum, leather and metal. His talent was revealed so quickly and clearly that soon the young talent was far from his teacher in mastery and the quality of painting.
Already in twenty years, in 1472, Leonardo became a member of the honorary Florentine Guild of Artists. And even the absence of his own studio, which he acquired only a few years later, did not prevent him from starting his own way as an independent master. Despite the obvious engineering abilities and remarkable talent for exact sciences, the society saw in the artist only an artisan who does not yet possess a great prestige. The ideals of freedom and creativity were far away.
The fate of the artist of the XV century entirely depended on influential patrons. So Leonardo throughout his life had to look for a place of service among the powerful of this world, and the performance of individual secular and church orders was built on the principle of a simple trade agreement.
The first ten years of the artist’s life were spent in creative searches and work on a few orders. So far, one day before Leonardo did not hear a rumor that the Duke of Sforza, the ruler of Milan, required a court sculptor. The young man immediately decided to try his hand at it.
The fact is that Milan at that time was one of the largest centers of weapons production, and Leonardo was immersed in his last hobby - the development of drawings of original and ingenious machines and mechanisms. Therefore, the opportunity to move to the capital of engineering, very inspired him. The artist wrote a letter of recommendation to the Duke of Sforza, in which he dared to offer himself as not only a sculptor, artist and architect, but also as an engineer, arguing that he could build ships, armored vehicles, catapults, cannons and other military equipment. The Duke was impressed by Leonardo’s self-confident letter, but only partially satisfied him: he was an artist’s sculptor. The first task of the new court sculptor was to produce a bronze statue of a horse designed to decorate the family grave of Sforza. The funny thing is that, due to various circumstances, for the seventeen years that Leonardo spent at the Milan court, the horse was never cast. But the interest of young talent for military affairs, mechanics and technology in arms workshops only grew. Almost all of Leonardo’s inventions belong to this period.
During his life, the brilliant da Vinci created numerous drawings of weaving, printing and rolling machines, metallurgical furnaces and woodworking machines. He first thought of the idea of a helicopter propeller, ball bearings, rotary crane, pile driving mechanism, hydraulic turbine, wind speed meter, fire telescopic ladder, adjustable wrench, reducer. Leonardo developed models of all kinds of military vehicles - a tank, a catapult, a submarine. In his sketches there are prototypes of the searchlight diving bell, excavator, bicycle, fin. And also, the most famous of its designs, based on a painstaking study of the technique of flying birds and the structure of the bird’s wing - an aircraft very resembling a hang glider, and a parachute.
Unfortunately, Leonardo did not see the embodiment of the vast majority of his ideas during his lifetime. Time for them has not yet come, there was no necessary raw materials and materials, the creation of which was also foreseen by the genius of the 15th century. All his life, Leonardo da Vinci had to put up with the fact that his grandiose plans are too far ahead of the era. Only at the end of the XIX century, many of them will be realized. And, of course, the master did not suspect that in the 20th and the 21st century millions of tourists would admire these inventions in special museums dedicated to his work.
In 1499, Leonardo left Milan. The reason was the seizure of the city by French troops led by Louis XII, the Duke of Sforza, who lost power, fled abroad. For the artist did not begin the best period in his life. For four years, he constantly moved from place to place, nowhere long without delay. So far, in 1503, he, a fifty-year-old, again had to return to Florence, the city where he had once worked as a simple apprentice, and now, at the height of his skill and fame, he worked on creating his genius Mona Lisa.
True, Milan da Vinci still returned, after several years of work in Florence. Now, he was there as a court painter of Louis XII, who at that time controlled the entire Italian north. Periodically, the artist returned to Florence, performing an order. Leonardo’s troubles ended in 1513 when he moved to Rome to the new patron of Giuliano Medici, the brother of Pope Leo X. The next three years, da Vinci was primarily engaged in science, engineering orders and technical experiments.
Being already very old, Leonardo da Vinci moved again, this time to France, at the invitation of Francis I, who succeeded Louis XII on the throne. The rest of the life of the brilliant master was held in the royal residence, the castle of Lmbois, surrounded by the highest honor from the monarch. The artist himself, despite the numbness of his right hand and the constantly deteriorating state of health, continued to make sketches and engage in pupils who replaced his family, never created by the master during his lifetime.
The gift of the observer and scientist
From his earliest childhood, Leonardo had a rare talent as an observer. From early childhood to the end of his life, the artist, fascinated by the phenomena of nature, could spend hours peering at the flame of a candle, watching the behavior of living things, studying the movement of water, the cycles of plant growth and the flight of birds. A lively interest in the world around him gave the master many priceless knowledge and keys to many secrets of nature. «Nature has arranged everything so perfectly that you find everywhere, something that can give you new knowledge,» the master said.
During his life, Leonardo made transitions through the highest alpine passes to explore the nature of atmospheric phenomena, traveled along mountain lakes and rivers to study the properties of water. All his life, Leonardo carried a notebook with him, which carried everything that attracted his attention. He attached special importance to optics, considering that the eye of the painter is a direct instrument of scientific knowledge.
Refusing to go along the path beaten by contemporaries, Leonardo searched for his own answers to questions of harmony and proportionality of everything that existed around him (the world around him and the man himself). The artist realized that if he wants to capture the man himself and the surrounding world in his works without distorting their essence, he must study the nature of both as deeply as possible. Starting with observing visible phenomena and forms, he gradually deepened the processes and mechanisms that govern them.
Mathematical knowledge helped the painter to understand that any object or object is a whole that inevitably consists of many parts, the proportionality and correct arrangement of which gives rise to what is called harmony. An incredible discovery of the painter was that the concepts of «nature», «beauty» and «harmony» are inseparably linked with a specific law, following which absolutely all forms in nature are formed, from the farthest stars in the sky to the flower petals. Leonardo realized that this law can be expressed in the language of figures, and using it, create beautiful and harmonious works in painting, sculpture, architecture and any other field.
In fact, Leonardo managed to discover the principle by which the Creator of Being himself created this world. The artist named his discovery «Golden, or Divine Proportion.» This law was already known to philosophers and creators of the ancient world, in Greece and Egypt, where it was widely used in a variety of forms of art. The painter followed the path of practice, and preferred all his knowledge to his own experience of interaction with nature and the world.
Leonardo did not skimp on sharing his discoveries and achievements with the world. During his lifetime he worked together with mathematician Luka Pocoli on the creation of the book «Divine Proportion», and after the Master’s death the light saw a treatise «The Golden Section», based entirely on his discoveries. Both books are written about art in the language of mathematics, geometry and physics. In addition to these sciences, the artist at various times was seriously interested in studying chemistry, astronomy, botany, geology, geodesy, optics and anatomy. And all in order, in the end, to solve the problems that he set himself in art. It was through painting, which Leonardo considered the most intellectual kind of creativity, he sought to express the harmony and beauty of the surrounding space.
Life on canvas
Looking at the creative legacy of the great painter, one can clearly see how the depth of Leonardo’s penetration into the foundations of scientific knowledge of the world filled his pictures with life, making them all the more truthful. It seems that with people portrayed by the master, you can easily make conversation, objects drawn by him, turn in his hands, and enter the landscape and get lost. In Leonardo’s images, mysterious and surprisingly realistic at the same time, depth and spirituality are evident.
To understand what Leonardo considered a real, living creation, you can draw an analogy with photography. Photography, in fact, is only a mirror copy, a documentary evidence of life, a reflection of the created world, unable to achieve its perfection. From this point of view, the photographer is the modern embodiment of the one about whom Leonardo said: «A painter who senselessly sketches, guided only by the practice and judgment of the eye, is like an ordinary mirror that imitates all objects opposed to him, knowing nothing of them.» The real artist, according to the master, studying nature and recreating it on the canvas, must surpass it, «himself inventing countless forms of grass and animals, trees and landscapes.»
The next level of skill and unique gift of man, according to Leonardo is a fantasy. «Where nature has already finished producing its species, man himself starts out of natural things with the help of this same nature innumerable kinds of new things.» The development of imagination is the first and most basic thing that an artist should do, according to da Vinci, it is about this that he writes on the pages of his manuscripts. In Leonardo’s mouth, it sounds like Truth from a capital letter, because he himself has proved this many times with his whole life and creative heritage, including so many ingenious conjectures and inventions.
The irrepressible desire for knowledge of Leonardo touched virtually all areas of human activity. During his life the master was able to prove himself as a musician, poet and literary man, engineer and mechanic, sculptor, architect and urbanist, biologist, physicist and chemist, anatomist and medicine expert, geologist and cartographer. The genius of da Vinci found its application even in the creation of culinary recipes, the development of clothing, making games for palace entertainments and designing gardens.
Leonardo could boast not only an unusually versatile knowledge and a wide range of skills, but also an almost perfect appearance. According to contemporaries, he was a tall, handsome man, beautifully built and endowed with great physical strength. Leonardo excellently sang, was a brilliant and witty narrator, danced and played in the lyre, possessed exquisite manners, was courteous and simply fascinated people with his one presence.
Perhaps, it was his uncommonness in practically all spheres of life that caused such cautious attitude towards him of the conservative majority, cautiously accepting innovative ideas. For his genius and non-standard thinking, he was often branded as a heretic and even accused of serving the devil. Apparently this is the fate of all the geniuses who come to our world to break the foundations and lead humanity forward.
In word and deed, denying the experience of past generations, the great painter said that «a painting by a painter will not be perfect if he takes pictures of others as an inspirer.» This also applies to all other areas of knowledge. Leonardo paid much attention to experience as the main source of ideas about man and the world. «Wisdom is the daughter of experience,» said the artist, it can not be acquired only by studying books, because those who write them are just mediators between people and nature.
Every person is a child of nature and a crown of creation. He has uncounted innumerable possibilities of knowing the world, inseparably connected with every cell of his body. Through the study of the world, Leonardo knew himself. The question that torments many art historians is what was more interested in da Vinci - painting or cognition? Who, in the end, was he an artist, scientist or philosopher? The answer is essentially simple, as a true creator, Leonardo da Vinci harmoniously combined all these concepts in himself alone. After all, you can learn to paint, be able to own a brush and paints, but this will not make you an artist, for real creativity is a special state of feelings and attitude to the world. Our world will reciprocate, becomes the muse, will open its secrets and will penetrate into the essence of things and phenomena just really loving it. From the way he lived Leonardo, according to all that he did, it is obvious that he was passionately in love with a man.
image of Madonna
The product of the «Annunciation» (1472-1475, Louvre, Paris) is written in the young painter to the beginning of his career. A painting of the Annunciation was intended for a monastery not far from Florence. It generated a lot of controversy among the scholars of Velikogo Leonardo. Doubts are in particular to ensure that the product is completely independent work of the artist. I must say, these disputes over the authorship is not uncommon for many works of Leonardo.
Made on a wooden panel, an impressive size - 98 x 217 cm, the work shows the moment has come down from heaven, the angel Gabriel tells Mary that she will give birth to a son, who will name Jesus. Traditionally it is believed that Mary at this time just reading the same passage of the prophecies of Isaiah, which refers to the future challenges. The scene is not accidentally shown on the background of the spring garden - flowers in hand of the archangel, and under his feet, and symbolize the purity of the Virgin Mary. And on its own garden surrounded by a low wall, traditionally refers to sinless image of Our Lady, fenced off his innocence from the outside world.
An interesting fact is connected with the wings of Gabriel. The painting is clearly discernible, they were to finish later - unknown artist has extended them in a very rough manner of painting. Initially, the wings that Leonardo painted, were distinguishable - they are much shorter and is likely to have been sketched by the artist from the wings of this bird.
In this work, if you look closely, you can find a few mistakes made by even inexperienced Leonardo in the construction of perspective. The most obvious of which is the right hand of Mary, visually located closer to the viewer than the whole of her figure. The draped clothing is no softness, they look too harsh and stark, as if made of stone. Here we must note that this is how Leonardo taught his master Verrocchio. This angularity and harshness common to almost all the works of artists of the time. But in the future, on the way to finding their own pictorial realism, Leonardo will develop itself and lead the all the other artists.
In the painting «Madonna Litta» (about 1480, Hermitage, Saint Petersburg), Leonardo managed to create incredibly expressive female image through practically the only gesture. On the canvas we see a complete thought, a gentle and peaceful mother lyubuyuschuyusya on her child, focusing in this look full of feelings. Without such a special tilting head so characteristic of many works of masters, which he studied for hours creating dozens of preparatory drawings, many of boundless maternal love experience would have been lost. Only the shadows in the corners of the lips of Mary as to hint at the possibility of a smile, but how much tenderness gives it all over his face. Fit to work quite small, only 42 x 33 cm, is most likely that it was intended for home worship. Indeed, in Italy XV century painted images of the Madonna and Child enjoyed quite popular, they are often ordered artists to wealthy citizens. Presumably, the «Madonna Litta» was originally written for the master of the rulers of Milan. Then, changing several owners, it passed into private family collection. The current title of the work comes from the name of Count Litta, who owned a family picture gallery in Milan. In 1865, it was he who sold it to the Hermitage together with several other paintings.
In his right hand the baby Jesus hidden almost imperceptible at first sight chick serving the Christian tradition, a symbol of the Son of God, and his childhood. Around paintings go controversy caused by too precise contours of drawing and some unnatural posture of the child, causing many researchers to suggest that active participation in the creation of the painting took one of the disciples of Leonardo.
The first paintings, which can see the master display talent, was the painting «Madonna of the Rocks» (about 1483, Louvre, Paris). The composition has been ordered to altar Chapel in Milan St. temple. Francis and was assumed as the central part of the triptych. The order was divided between the three masters. One of them is creating side panels with angels image for the altarpiece, the other - carved framing finished pieces of wood.
The clergy concluded very detailed contract with the Leonardo. In it were specified the smallest details of the picture up to the style and technique of execution of all elements and even the color of clothing, from which the artist will not step had to be rejected. So, to light a product, telling a meeting of Infant Jesus and Ioanna Krestitelya. The action takes place in the depths of the grotto, in which the mother and son are hiding from their pursuers sent by King Herod, who saw the Son of God in a direct threat to their power. Baptist rushes to Jesus, hands folded in prayer, that, in turn, blesses his gesture. A silent witness to the sacraments is the angel Uriel, looking toward the viewer. From now on it will be called upon to protect John. All four figures so skilfully arranged in a picture that appears to form a whole. The whole composition like to call «music» so much tenderness, harmony and smoothness in its characters, connected to each other with gestures and glances.
This work was given to the artist is not easy. The time frame was strictly stipulated in the contract, but, as often happened with a painter, he was not able to meet them, which resulted in litigation. After lengthy litigation, Leonardo had to write one more version of this composition, stored now in the National Gallery of London, it is known to us as the «Virgin of the Rocks.»
Milan’s famous fresco monastery
Within the walls of the Milanese convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, or rather in his dining room, kept one of the greatest masterpieces of painting and the main national treasure of Italy. The legendary fresco «The Last Supper» (1495-1498) occupies a space of 4.6 x 8.8 m, and describes the dramatic moment when, surrounded by his disciples Christ utters a sad prophecy, «One of you will betray me.»
Painter, which has always attracted the study of human passions, wanted to capture in the images of the apostles of ordinary people, not historical characters. Each of them in their own way responds to events. Leonardo set himself the task with maximum realism to convey the psychological atmosphere in the evening, to convey to us the different characters of its participants, with an accuracy of a psychologist exposing their inner peace and conflicting emotions. The variety of characters and individual picture of their gestures have a place in almost all the emotions from wonder to fierce anger, from confusion to sadness, from the simple to the deep shock of disbelief. Future traitor Judas, which traditionally all the artists before that was separated from the general group, in this work, sitting with the others, standing out clearly grim expression on his face and shadow, as if shrouded his whole figure. Considering he discovered the principle of the golden section, Leonardo mathematically verified the location of each of the students. All twelve apostles are divided into four nearly symmetric groups, the figure of Christ in the center. Other details of the picture are not intended to detract from the character. Thus, the table is intentionally too small, and the room itself, in which the meal, strict and simple.
Working on the «Last Supper» by Leonardo conducted an experiment with colors. But, unfortunately, they invented the composition of soil and paint, for which he combined oil and tempera, was completely unstable. The consequence of this was that after only twenty years after the writing, the product beginning to deteriorate rapidly and irreversibly. Stables, which are arranged Napoleon’s army in the room where the mural was located, aggravated the already existing problems. As a consequence, almost from the beginning of its history to the present day on this monumental canvas carried out restoration work, only by which it still manages to retain.
Head Xu his long life, Leonardo da Vinci created no more than twenty paintings, some of which remained unfinished. Such amazing for that time not alarming fecundity customers well, and she did not hurry with which the artist used to work on his paintings, and did become a byword. Best memories monk of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, to observe the work of the painter of the famous fresco «The Last Supper.» Here is how he described the time of Leonardo: the artist in the early morning climb on scaffolding erected around the painting, and he could not leave with the brush until late at night, totally forgetting about food and rest. But at other times, for hours, for days on end, carefully consider your creation without doing a single stroke. Unfortunately, despite all the efforts of the master, because of a failed experiment and materials fresco from Milan monastery became one of the most powerful artist disappointments.
Enigmatic «Mona Lisa»
But the painting «Mona Lisa» has taken an important place in his life. From the moment of writing the famous paintings and the rest of his life Leonardo is inseparable from him as with his most precious treasure. What is the secret of the tremendous impression which makes this small size picture (only 77x53 cm), ages wondering millions of viewers who saw her once.
It is extremely surprising that the records of Leonardo da Vinci, there is no mention about this portrait. No information, no one instructed him to work on a canvas, or who served as a model for him, nor What is the process of its creation. The artist, his life takes notes about everything, never mentioned the owl greatest creation.
There is absolutely no documentary evidence, but inquiring minds experts extraordinarily well advanced in their conjectures. At various times, the candidates in the heroine’s paintings became the Duchess Matuy Isabella d ’Este, which worked on the portraits at the time of Leonardo, then some Florentine named Mrs. Pachifika Brandao, the former mistress of a noble patron Dzhuliano Medichi. Several researchers claim that there is no model at all and was not, and Leonardo created a collective image of the ideal woman. Others are convinced that it is recreated from memory the features of his mother. Still others argue that it is the young man in a woman’s dress, a former student, and perhaps a lover of the painter - Jnana Kaproti Giacomo, near Leonardo last 26 years (by the way, the artist bequeathed his picture). Well, the last, the most popular version tells us that the «Mona Lisa» a self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci.
Absolutely all the guesswork, have not any real evidence. There is the official version. It argues that the painting depicts the wife of a wealthy Florentine merchant, Francesco del Giocondo - Lisa Gherardini. The exact date of the creation of the painting is also not known, it is considered that the work on the «Mona Lisa» was held in the period between 1503 and 1513 year. Presumably, pose future «Mona Lisa», and then simply Lisa Gherardini, beginning when she was about twenty-four years. The prefix «Mona», again, presumably, no other than the contraction of the word «Madonna», which translated from Italian means «lady, mistress.»
For all the Renaissance was typical of the declaration of human crown of nature, its most perfect creation. As a consequence, and in painting, aspired to imitate nature, the true measure of the skill of the artist becomes a human is the ability to image. Moreover, it was important to convey not only the characteristics of the external appearance of the model. The most important skill was considered to disclose the identity of the portrait. Here and begin the questions and quests, how to show the invisible, how to transfer the picture hidden temperament and mental qualities of the characters?
Leonardo certainly had his own answer to these questions. Artist advised to write characters with such gestures, which reflect their state of mind. «If the figures do not make certain gestures, and those that are members of the body to express the views of their souls, these figures twice dead: mostly dead because the painting itself is not alive, but is merely the mouthpiece of living things without life, if to it does not join the vitality of the movement (gesture), they are dead once more, «says the master.
At the same time, not necessarily to resort to complicated fancy camera angles and movements, the painter himself never did. Leonardo able to achieve the vertices of skill in the creation of saturation and depth of the image in the substantial absence of external movement. Face «Mona Lisa» illuminated by a subtle smile, which gives it a special kind of expression. The woman looking from the portrait, everything is simple, natural and at the same time very mysterious. She either about something thinks, or remembers something. Leonardo created, without exaggeration, it is the living face of a living person. He failed srisovat and recreate their model on the canvas, revealing so lively and spirited way, that it’s almost scary. It seems that not a spectator looking at the Mona Lisa, and she looks at him with a profound, meaningful look. Many would argue that being in the same room with the picture, it seems that the view of «Mona Lisa» is always directed at the viewer, wherever he moved. Some also argue that the Mona Lisa’s face is changing, depending on the angle from which to look at it. It turns out that this is not a picture, but a real presence of the character created by the greatest genius of Leonardo da Vinci.
How did the painter managed to create such an amazing effect? How to get to live their own life paint layer on a flat surface of a wooden panel? What is the magic of Leonardo applied using a brush and palette to millions of viewers believed in the «Mona Lisa» as a real?!
Critics have carefully studied the picture. If we talk about its performance technique, it should be noted here that the work done is almost transparent, extremely thin layers of color, covering the original image. When the previous coat dries, the master imposes the following, and so many, many times, showing admirable patience and virtuosity.
The result of this painstaking work, this extraordinary multi-layered painting became so smooth transition of one color to another, that the initial contour line drawing, as it were dissolved. And it is this lack of boundaries between light and shadow, gently merging with each other and create a feeling of a live volume. Another incredible achievement Leonardo was unprecedented for a painting of that time the image of air column. The artist fills the space of the picture barely perceptible haze due to the depth of which appear in the product.
This effect of haze, scattered soft light Leonardo called the Italian term «sfumato». Brush strokes of the artist was so small that no X-ray or microscope will not detect any trace of his work, nor determine the amount of applied layers of paint. Many artists for hundreds of years tried to repeat the reception of Leonardo, but none of them who did not. Until now, the «Mona Lisa» is considered to be unsurpassed in terms of painting techniques.
And it’s not even looking at what we are able to see quite a change in the pattern. Masterpieces of Velikogo Leonardo has a lot of years, during which time there have been some changes, particularly in the color palette of the web. First biographer Vasari Dzhordzhpo painter, who lived in the XVI century, in their descriptions of the works mentioned with admiration crimson shades in the palette of colors used in the writing of Lisa Gherardini face. Today, nothing of the sort seen in the picture anymore.
At a ratio of colors in the painting affected and lacquers that after Leonardo had been applied to the surface of a masterpiece to ensure its better safety, they are the same, and created the cloudy effect. Now we look at the ladies image that seemed to shine through the thickness of sea water. Has changed the composition and picture - were completely lost two columns were located previously on either side of the main figure. But these architectural elements are completely changed the perception of the composition, as through it was immediately clear that the pattern character is sitting on the balcony of the track, rather than suspended in the space, as it sometimes seems.
When you create a masterpiece by Leonardo, naturally I used the discovery of the law «golden ratio.» All the elements of the picture are arranged in a certain way. They follow the law of the divine, harmonious proportions. The figure of the Mona Lisa is related to the rule of the «golden triangle» with mathematical precision, perfectly matching all parts of the right stellate pentagon. From the point of view of the viewer, distinguishing the surrounding objects on the form, it is very important, although not recognized by the man himself.
Very often, we feel intuitively appealing and are drawn exactly to those forms which obey the law of proportion. The ancient sages and masters knew this, but modern scientists have proved experimentally. The law applies not only to art, but also for psychology, industrial design. Creating forms and images of modern advertising is based on the harmony of the law, but we do not know about it and do not think.
The magic of true art
You can write a lot about the magic and incredible masterpiece of Leonardo, but the words - it’s just a word, to understand what the «Mona Lisa», it must be seen. Only by looking into her eyes, you can experience all that writing about her art historians, critics and ordinary people.
Unfortunately, photos and reproductions erase life from the face of the Mona Lisa, and the magic of her image completely disappears. Photo gives only a general idea of the work, it is only an obstacle for those who want to enjoy socializing with living creatures. Photo is only an intermediary, as well as any discussion of the masterpiece many critics. No book will tell you that the person you report a fixed Mona Lisa. As he spoke a great picture of the creator: «Who can go to the source should not go to the pitcher.» Nor any knowledge will not help to feel in communion with the true, living works of art need only own spiritual sensitivity. During the meeting with the «Mona Lisa» to each their own will have to find the answer to her secrets. It is proved that in different people it causes a variety of feelings and associations, someone revives personal memories, someone suggestive. Some believe that it is sad, others that thoughtful, third, it seems wicked, and someone even sinister. Well, someone decides that she did not smile, and her whole mystical mystery - fiction.
A reflection of Velikogo Leonardo
Popular fact that upon application of a self-portrait of Leonardo in the image of the «Mona Lisa» the upper part of the face is almost exactly matches can be explained from a scientific point of view. Critics say that the Creator has put in the human soul, the painter puts a part of himself in his creation. Feeling like an incredibly strong it is associated just with each own works of Leonardo da Vinci has repeatedly argued that «by the figures often resemble their masters. This happens because our judgment - is what drives our hand in creating all the contours of the figure. «
Looking at the work of art, the viewer not only sees what is depicted on it. Most importantly, what is happening - it is in contact with the inner world of the painter and finds himself. Perhaps, therefore, restrained, almost ephemeral Mona Lisa smile excites the hearts and minds of its incomprehensibility has been so long? It is felt all the wisdom of the knowledge of the true nature of the surrounding objects, accumulated by Leonardo da Vinci. Perhaps through his favorite child of the artist he looks at us with a slight grin. It seems that the whole experience of the world, embodied in the form of women, assembled in this small portrait. To penetrate the mystery of the Mona Lisa is the same as that to comprehend the genius who created it.
And in Rome and Milan, and in his final resting place, French Amboise, Leonardo never parted with this canvas. And after his death, bequeathed the «Mona Lisa» to his assistant and pupil, who soon sold the picture of a hot admirer and patron of the last masters, the French King Francis I.
Entire generations of monarchs admired painting in Versailles, as long as Louis XV had not commanded to move it in the palace vault. After the French Revolution, Napoleon moved his personal masterpiece in the bedroom in the palace of the Tuileries. Later, the «Mona Lisa» came to Napoleon at the Louvre museum. From where she was abducted August 21, 1911. Thief was Italian immensely revered works of the great masters, named Vincenzo. He wanted to return the painting to the artist’s home and nearly three years of secret masterpiece in his own house. All the while, until his return to the Louvre Mona Lisa never left the covers of magazines and newspapers around the world. So, at the beginning of the XX century «Mona Lisa» has become the most recognizable product in the history of world art and of her arguments and the conversation continues, to this day.
Look at yourself
Renaissance artists used to put the image itself somewhere in the depths of the picture, on which they worked. Perhaps Leonardo was no exception, and portrayed himself as a young shepherd in the preparatory drawing to the canvas «The Adoration of the Magi.» Among other things, there is a perception that it is often imprinted their traits to examine the proportions of the human face. However, this is only guesswork, with no hard evidence. The only portrait of the artist, whose authenticity is not in doubt - «Self-portrait» (Royal Library, Turin), written around 1515, size 33 x 21 cm, which is now printed in every illustrated book devoted to the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci.
One of the artists of the XVI century, Dzhovannp Lomazzo so described it: «His head was covered with such long hair and eyebrows were so bushy beard and so impressive that it seemed genuine personification of noble scholarship, which used to be an ancient druid Prometheus and Hermes.»
Master created his «Self Portrait», when he was about sixty years. Leonardo spent his whole life to the study of the world, nature and people, and now, when his creativity and way of life drew to a close, the time has come to look at himself. The artist did it not just as a look in the mirror and looked at himself with the position of the artist, able to grasp the essence of things and sure to capture the movements of the hands and to know what he saw on a flat surface of the sheet.
This self-portrait, it is better than anything else, reveals the masters, not only to others, but, first of all, to himself. Just a few lines sketched by Leonardo slice of red sanguine, but it seems that he could not be more honest. Only youth - it’s time to narcissism, maturity, it is useless. Before us is a man with the look of the sage, his features harsh and at the same time calm. The image did not look like a tired old man, probably a genius, possessing an incredible inner strength, whose heart is still full of passion. Leonardo serious, focused and as determined. This quick figure could convey the finished image, which is nothing more to add. The fate of the picture for a long time was not known. It was discovered only at the end of the XIX century, when the Italian monarch Charles Albert Savoysky bought it from an unknown collector and donated to the preservation of the Royal Library of Turin.
He died Velikiy Leonardo da Vinci, May 2, 1519. Centuries later, the master remains a symbol of the boundless aspirations of the human mind, a creator, a visionary and a genius, endowed with almost superhuman abilities. All attempts to penetrate the mystery, which the artist bequeathed to the people, akin to the desire to understand the essence of art itself, as the highest manifestations of man.