King of the painters Titian Vecellio (1477-1576) automatic translate
Titian Vecellio da Cadore - one of the greatest artists of all time and peoples, along with such legends of the Italian Renaissance as Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael. Titian, the recognized genius of his time, was called «the king of painters and painter of kings». The discovery of this titan painting in the field of fine arts, one way or another, influenced the creativity of all subsequent artists. Titian played a major role in the development of the mythological genre, landscape and portrait. By the way, being sealed by a master’s brush was the highest reward for his contemporaries.
Titian - Gallery of paintings on Gallerix.ru
The artist lived a long life, keeping to his last day the clarity of thinking, sensitivity of perception, visual acuity and amazing ability to work. This allowed Titian until the end of his days not to let the brush out of his hands and leave to his descendants a vast artistic heritage. In his creations, the fragility and solemnity, the spirituality and everyday reality, the tragedy and beauty of man and the world around him were surprisingly combined. No wonder the painter’s works were copied countless times.
Life and work of the artist fell on the period of the highest flowering of Venice, the brilliance of its power and glory, the time of global changes and historical events. According to various sources, Titian was born in 1477 or 1480-m year. His parents belonged to an ancient family, who lived in the small town of Pieve di Calore, located in the Alps. The boy showed his ability to draw early, and already at the age of ten his parents sent him to Venice for training. Basics of fine art young Titian comprehended in the studio of Giovanni Bellini, who played a significant role in the fate of the young artist, introducing him to the already famous painter Giorgione. This meeting played a big role in the life of Titian, thanks to it, he found his style early and achieved recognition. And although the two talented artists did not become friends - habits, characters and views on life were too different - one can not underestimate the role that Giorgione played in Titian’s life. On the respect of the latter to his older friend can be judged from the surviving evidence of how hard Titian suffered a sudden death of Giorgione (the great artist suddenly died when he was only thirty-five years old).
An original tribute to the talent of Giorgione and the important role he played in the fate of Titian, was the restoration of the artist burned in the fire of the painting by Giorgione «Sleeping Venus.» Titian completely rewrote the irreversibly damaged fire painting, preserving only the pose of the heroine and her gentle face. The modest painter did not sign the painting with his name and never mentioned the almost complete authorship of the masterpiece attributed to Giorgione’s brush. Perhaps this work was the first milestone in the resulting confusion, because of which for many decades, Titian’s paintings, distinguished by a rare perfection of performance, were often attributed to Giorgione’s brushes.
But we will return a little back, namely, in 1508, during the era of the «golden age» of the Italian Renaissance, when the recognized artist invited the young Titian to help him in the work on the design of the German courtyard in Venice. Giorgione began to design his part of the German farmstead much earlier than his younger companion, choosing for himself looking more advantageously the main facade of the building. Titian also left the back of the courtyard, facing a narrow street, which was always filled with people. Giorgione, who was not only a talented painter, but also a charming man, he was always surrounded by a lot of friends who continually came to the place of work to praise the artist and raise his creative spirit. Titian, however, distinguished by its silence and closeness, worked primarily in seclusion. It’s no surprise that Giorgione, who was more confident in himself, finished his work much earlier than his young colleague.
When the restoration of the German courtyard was finally completed, the whole of Venice fled to look at this miracle. The enthusiasm of the audience was unlimited, and, according to numerous reports, the greatest furore produced the painting of Titian. To assess the fresco paintings, a special commission was created, headed by Bellini. Remained the memories of one of the witnesses who were present there on that day - Dolce: «Titian depicted the most magnificent Judith, she is above all praise. The color and drawing were so perfect that as soon as she appeared before the audience, all the friends of Giorgione, who unanimously decided that this was his work, immediately began to congratulate the artist, assuring him that this is the best of all created by him creations. « To our great regret, at present we can not judge the work of the two masters, because after only thirty or forty years the frescoes were almost completely lost because of the very damp, saturated with salt of Venetian air, faded paint. But even according to some surviving fragments it is clear that Titian brilliantly withstood this difficult test, declaring himself as a talented artist with a deeply individual style.
And the weight, thanks to the participation in this project, about the work of Titian began talking very early, since the first works of the master were distinguished by a rare realism and careful transfer of details, which was rarely possible for young painters. Not the least role in the early recognition of the artist was played and extremely favorable for creative people in the country. During this period, Venice lived in peace and prosperity, thanks to a powerful fleet, developed trade and a stable economic situation.
Creating a unique style
It was a time when poets, writers, musicians and artists portrayed happy people against the backdrop of serene nature, and the main themes for works of art were love, beauty and poetry of relationships. In this situation, the creative path of the young Titian began.
Initially, the artist was carried away by the depiction of nature, moreover, his favorite hours of the day were the magic hours before the sunset, when the sky acquired a bright, rich color. You can guess that Tizian’s favorite time of the year was autumn, with its rampant and multicolored colors. True, the love of landscapes did not last long, with time the master began to give preference to another genre, namely the portrait.
The artist began to attract people, with their rich and complex inner world. Among the artist’s early works, the «Portrait of a Man in a Dress with Blue Sleeves» stands out with special skill, depicting one of the artist’s best friends - the poet Ludovico Ariosto, leaning on the parapet with the initials «TV». True, there is a version that the picture, which is now in the National Gallery in London, depicts Titian himself. The question remains controversial, but it is not fundamental, since the main thing in this work is not its object, but the manner of writing of the young artist and the skill with which it is performed. The graceful coloring of the picture, the lightness of the strokes, the simple and harmonious composition, the beautifully written fabric of the man’s clothes, looking down on the viewer a little, all this characterizes Titian’s already uncommon talent.
Over time, Titian’s work began to be filled with increasing narrative, dynamics, tension and drama. The nature of them was no longer silent and static, it was filled with life, and people against it were overwhelmed with feelings and movements. For example, in the painting «Three Men’s Ages» (1512, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh), the flow of time and the shortness of the human age is depicted. The plot of the picture, unfolding in the background of the sunny landscape, it is necessary to read from right to left. Two babies, sleeping a sweet dream on the right in the foreground, depict a serene beginning of life, when a person still does not know what joys and sorrows await him in the future. A small angel protects the peace and safety of kids, around which barely breaks through the young grass. In the left part of the composition, in the foreground, under the dense crown of the tree, there is a young couple in love. This part of the picture represents the middle of life when we are young, full of energy, desires, health and energy. And in the background an old man is sitting with two skulls in his hands. Skulls symbolize the inevitability of death, waiting for each person, when his life comes to an end. The head of the elder is lowered to the chest, expressing the sadness and hopelessness of old age. The meaning of the picture is simple - we are all born, then to die. This theme worried Titian throughout his work, also reflected in other canvases, for example, «The Allegory of Time and Reason,» which we will consider later.
By the initial period of the artist’s work is also the canvas «The Village Concert» (circa 1510, the Louvre, Paris), at which Titian managed to convey a remarkably harmonious fusion of man and nature in a beautiful and quiet evening before sunset. Here in front of us are two young men in beautiful robes of tender green and bright, red-orange flowers. One of them is a musician, he is about to touch the strings of his lute, the other is a villager, he is ready to listen carefully. In the foreground there is a naked woman, in her hands a flute, most likely it’s the Muse. She turns her back to the viewer and looks attentively at the musician. In the left part of the composition there is another naked maiden, in her hands a vessel with water symbolizing the idea of purifying all living things through communication with art. Nudity of virgins against the background of nature looks very harmonious and is an important allegory of the expression of chaste feelings.
The composition completes the background, which brings us back from this amazing and poetic atmosphere to the prose of life, from which it is nowhere possible to hide. The image of the earth on the picture was a shepherd, wandering with his herd under the thick trees. In the depth of the picture can be seen the roofs of simple peasant houses, people living in them do not even suspect the existence of this paradise of nature. When you look at the picture, it seems that although the hero has not yet started playing the lute, the enchanting sounds of music have already filled the whole space. Initially, this picture was attributed to Giorgione’s brush, since it has a very strong influence of his techniques - the image of an ideal world filled with dreams and illusions that exists outside of real time and space.
The theme of contrasting the sublime and earthly was reflected in yet another work by Titian relating to the same period. In the painting «Interrupted Concert» (circa 1510, Palazzo Pitti, Florence), we see a young monk, enthusiastically playing on his back. Behind him stands an elderly man who is trying to stop the game of a young man by touching his shoulder. The monk reluctantly breaks away from his occupation: his thin fingers continue to flutter over the keys, although the head is already turned to the side. The face of the elder comrade is severe, the reason is in the young man standing on the left, dressed in a patrician’s clothes with an arrogant and empty look, turned past the musicians, with an ironic smile frozen on his lips.
The main idea of the picture is that the sublime world of art, harmony, beauty and love can always be destroyed by a rude reality, bursting into the most unexpected image. So in the picture, the indifference of the patrician, far from the world of music, and in fact, indifferent to it, forces a man with a lute in his hands to stop his enthusiastic companion, so as not to waste energy and inspiration on a person who can not appreciate it.
Perhaps the story was influenced by the works of the philosopher Plato, published at that time in Venice, who in his «Laws» expressed the idea that: «the most beautiful art is that which is perceived only by the elect.»
One of Titian’s first paintings on the Biblical theme is the canvas entitled «Do not Touch Me» (circa 1512, National Gallery, London). At the heart of the canvas is an episode from the Gospel in which Jesus Christ is Mary Magdalene, and she, to make sure that He really is alive and is not a dream, extends a hand to Him. But Jesus bashfully covering his nakedness with a shroud, says: «Do not touch Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father.» The background for the plot is a landscape - a tall tree, depicted in the center of the canvas, to the right on the hill there are houses, in the distance one can see the sea. The figures of Mary and Christ in the foreground literally shine, masterfully chosen coloring in golden, brown and ocher tones for a long time made art critics think that the painting belongs to the brush of Giorgione.
Love and envy of the powerful
Titian, from an early age caressed by the powerful, many times offered to leave his beloved Venice and settle under the wing of one or another patron. But the artist loved this city too much and hoped to build his life and career here. Therefore, having achieved a certain recognition, the painter wrote a letter-appeal to the rulers of the city, in which he proposed to undertake the most complicated work on the painting of the hall of the Grand Council. At the same time, he asked to consider his candidacy for the vacant position of a mediator for the supply of salt at the German farmstead. At first glance, this is strange, but this administrative position in Venice was occupied, as a rule, by artists. This was due to the specifics of their work, which required the understanding of minerals, be it salt or paint. The position of the mediator was a tasty morsel for any artist of that time. She gave the right to receive an annual salary and the honorary title of the official painter of the Republic of Saint Mark. And this, in turn, provided the artist with work - he automatically received most of the state order, including the writing of portraits of all new doges for the hall of the Grand Council. In addition, the treasury paid many of the artist’s expenses: renting a workshop, buying canvases and paints, and also some other needs.
And so, in 1513 Titian was fortunate enough - the Council of the Government accepted his proposal. The happy artist began to settle in a new place. Many students came to his studio, young artists dreamed of working with such a recognized and well-known master, more mature artists envied his profitable and honorable post. But, unfortunately, Titian’s joy did not last long. Another venerable artist Giovanni Bellini, in the studio of which young Titian worked, was outraged by this appointment, and he turned to his patron, one of the influential Venetian doges, to challenge the Council’s decision. As a result, a scandal broke out, and the decision to appoint Titian was quickly canceled. This was also facilitated by the change in the composition of the Grand Council, which happened so inappropriately for a young artist. Titian was furious, but he did not abandon his ambitious plans. The result of his struggle was his new appointment as a salt mediator, held only four years later, in 1517.
His anger at the powerful Titian partially expressed in his work «The Dinar of Caesar», created in 1516 (now the picture is in the Dresden Art Gallery). The canvas is written by an unusually rich and juicy palette, thanks to which the image seems very embossed. The composition of the picture is simple and expressive. Two figures, depicted to the waist, as if faced on the canvas. These are two opposites - virtues in the image of Christ, standing in the center and greed in the image of the Pharisee, as if invading the picture from the right. The hypocrite holds out a denarius to Christ, his whole appearance is defiant and unpleasant. Christ, on the contrary, is the personification of purity and sincerity, his figure on a dark background, as it were, illuminates the entire canvas. He calmly looks at the Pharisee, in his gaze the confidence and dumb question: «Why are you tempting me?». The meaning of the picture is simple and clear - the Lord knows all our thoughts, because He is All-Seeing, and His answer is simple, but profound: «Give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and God the God.» Taking a traditional biblical story, the artist reflected in it his secret thoughts about good and evil. The general color of the picture causes anxiety. Bright, as if filled with light, Christ’s clothes, along with his impeccable, enlightened face, contrast sharply with the brownish-golden hues that depict the Pharisee, who embodies all the evil and injustice of the world around him. Its appearance is colorful - a rough nose with a hump, a high forehead, an earring in the ear, a tanned skin, a sinewy hand holds out a coin. It is no accident that two figures, one of which personifies kindness and nobility, and the other - all the meanness and meanness, which man can do, occupy such a different space on the canvas. Titian does not accidentally truncate the figure of the Pharisee, he presses him to the edge of the picture, by this he shows his attitude to the question of the struggle between good and evil, his infinite belief that the divine principle, stored in every man, can defeat all the vices of the surrounding world.
The search for happiness
Personal life of an artist is not immediately formed. For a long time he could not find a lover to their liking. For the first time, the idea of marriage was visited Titian when he met the daughter of his friend - a very young girl named Violana. Evidence about whether his love is mutual, unfortunately did not survive, but judging by the fact that Violana often visited the artist’s studio and posed for him for a number of works, Titian was not indifferent to her. However, despite this, the marriage did not take place. The biographers of Titian can only speculate about the reasons for such an outcome, but most likely, against the union girl’s parents were.
His love and passion for the artist Violante immortalized in canvas «Flora», written about 1515 (now the work belongs to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence). This work was a real masterpiece of the young Titian. The picture is impregnated with sensuality and admiration of female beauty. Beautiful golden-haired girl is holding in his right hand a bundle of the first spring flowers, with the other hand she holds from slipping off the shoulder cape, almost baring her full breasts. Violany image later appeared in many works of the master ( «sacred and profane love,» «Salome», «A young woman with a mirror», «Violana» and others), as the embodiment of true beauty and femininity. But the «Flora» has become the most famous of them, the canvas multiple times copied and copied by other artists.
The second significant work of the artist, written in the same time period was «sacred and profane love» (about 1515, Galleria Borghese, Rome). Ideological inspiration paintings became «Azolanskie nymphs» Bembo and the novel «Love in dreams battle Poliphili» Active in the Venetian salon. The roots of both lie in Roman mythology, in which two of Venus personified the unity of opposites - exalted platonic feelings and carnal desires and passions.
Canvas is written in a remarkably vivid and bright colors that transmit a joyful outlook on life and the world, it is full of allegories and symbols, as created by a person commissioned by, well versed in the art. In the foreground of the painting depicts figures of two beautiful women sitting near the source. On the left is a beautiful Violana in the form of earthly love. Her dress caught belt with metal buckle, which depicted a symbol of marriage, and his emblem is a wreath of myrtle tree branches on her head. Love is heaven on the right hand side of the painting solemnly holding a raised hand a lighted lamp, as if blessing the earthly love for reciprocity. It’s hard not to notice that, despite the fact that the two women on the web are like opposites of each other - in fact they are the same person. The only difference in the clothes characters. Heavenly Love naked, only a piece of white cloth covers her thighs - it is a symbol of purity and innocence, her red cape contrasts sharply with the modest and restrained colors of clothing earthly love.
As with any canvas that era background played an equally important role in the symbolic meaning of the picture than its protagonists. Sensual and at the same time extremely clean landscape is divided into two parts, a mighty tree. The «earth» part of the picture shows a rich house and approaching it the rider, which is evident at the gate waiting for a loving and faithful wife. Rabbits, on the left of the figure of earthly love mean fertility. Landscape in the right part of the picture includes the church bell tower on a background of mountain ranges, lake and a flock of sheep with a shepherd to guard them. Cupid in the center of the canvas is busy catching water from the fallen rose petals.
In this unusually harmonious composition, a master in a very elegant manner trying to solve the current and for himself an ethical dilemma of the relationship between the sublime sense and carnal passion. Lyrical work is filled with a variety of very realistic details that characterize the prevailing architectural style of Titian, as well as its rich palette. Customer web lover official from the Grand Council, was very pleased with the picture, not even knowing that it will be a great masterpiece of world painting.
At the same time it was written painting «Madonna of the Cherries» (1515, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). The canvas features a brightness of the color scheme and the precise detail of figures and objects, which certainly shows great talent and skill of its author.
As for the history of failed love and the young Titian Violany, then it counteracted associates and relatives, itself has come to naught. Master returned home without even knowing it was there waiting for his fate itself. The elder brother of the artist led to his house a new au pair - simple girl Cecilia. With it, the artist’s house was filled with clarity and comfort, its center is alive again, I was filled with mouth-watering aromas of the kitchen. Titian was struck by the simplicity, directness, modesty and generosity Cecilia. But then he did not know what she would be his companion for life, a loyal friend and the mother of three children.
The official painter of the Republic of St. Mark
In 1517, Titian, finally approved on the post of the official artist of the Republic of St. Mark, in the whole worked to develop altarpiece «Resurrection Mary» (1516-1518 years, the Church of Santa Maria of the Friars in Venice). On the opening day, the church was filled with famous guests and ordinary people. When the altar solemnly removed the cover, are present literally gasped from the blinding light that he exuded. Emotional tension reached its peak expressed in cries of delight and indignation, this stunning effect produced a new creation of the artist. It has become a new landmark in the history of Venetian painting and the world in which it would be difficult to find a product, wherein the same powerful emotional impact. Art glorified when Bellini and Carpaccio never reached such heights, and world art at the time had no other examples of such large-scale and monumental paintings.
product composition is divided into three parts. In the lower part there are three-meter figure of the eleven apostles, accompanying the Virgin, ascends into the sky. Master perfectly conveyed their emotions through intense, full of excitement expressions on their faces. The apostles made so realistic that the viewer feel that he is now desperate to hear their moans and cries. In the center of the fresco depicts the majestic figure of the Virgin Mary, to say goodbye to this world and was seen off by the angels to God. Her expression calm, in his eyes betrays peace and quiet joy of the upcoming meeting with the Heavenly Father. And finally, at the top of the composition shows Lord waiting Virgin Mary with two angels. Unfortunately, the picture is not preserved. Being heavily influenced it, paint faded and crumbled, in addition, for many reasons, a huge canvas is constantly transported from one place to another, which also could not but affect its safety. However, there is no doubt that this masterpiece of Titian proved compatriots how deservedly he received his chief artist of the Republic of St. Mark.
Masterpieces of the artist born one after the other. In 1520 it was written by the magnificent «Portrait of a Man with gloves» (Louvre, Paris), which depicts a typical representative of the intelligentsia of the time, close in spirit to the most Titian. An image of man immersed in his own thoughts, he is dreamy and thoughtful, his hand gloves, but he seemed to have forgotten about them. Despite the seeming aloofness, his face clearly expressed an active position in life. He gives the impression of a very self-sufficient, self-confident and knowledgeable lives. In this way Titian introduced a certain hero of his time, to whom he would like to meet in Venetian society: an educated person, subtle, clever and profound, which has retained the dignity and peace of the nobility, despite a very difficult time when everywhere rampant lies, hypocrisy and anger.
In addition to portraits and religious paintings, in the period from 1520 to 1523 Titian creates several paintings with mythological subjects. Mythology and allegory were the undisputed masters of the ridge, but after creating the paintings, «Bacchus and Ariadne» and «Bacchanal on Andros Island», the artist for a long time moving away from mythological stories. Titian’s biographers attribute this to the fact that the artist took an active part in society, which is a problem troubled him constantly. Blind joy and unbridled joy of mythological characters were too far from the reality surrounding the artist with its flaws and problems.
The plot «Bacchus and Ariadne» (1520-1523 gg., National Gallery, London) shows us the victorious return of Bacchus (Dionysus in Greek mythology) from India to the island of Naxos, where alone pining Ariadne. Bacchus chariot drawn by two leopards, calmly standing on the shore, and God himself rapidly jumps from her lover to Ariadne. Accompaniment at Bacchus appropriate - the cheerful company of satyrs and Bacchantes. They run behind the leader, who lifted over the head of veal leg, and who is trying to escape from the grip of a boa constrictor. At the bottom of the little satyr, still quite a child, dragged along the ground head of the calf, which the dog barks. The boy looks at the viewer’s gaze with a sly mischievous grin, as if waiting for the response of the public to his venture.
Purple cloak naked Bacchus fluttering in the wind, his whole figure extraordinarily dynamic, it reflects his impatience. The figure also Ariadne, on the contrary, turned away from the viewer, as if hidden from him. It seems that Bacchus, his swiftness scares her. Ariadne, plunge into shock all event, covered by hand, not knowing what to do next. The backdrop for the action is a landscape depicting the mighty trees, the distant village, the mountains on the horizon and the sea.
Second mythological paintings of this period was the «Bacchanalia on Andros Island» (1523, Museo del Prado, Madrid). On the canvas depicts an orgy of the island’s inhabitants, many of their bodies fill almost all the space of the picture. Here, men and women who drink, have fun and rampant. In the background on the right on a hill sat down naked drunk Selenium, right in front of the canvas shows a nude girl, she was pretty ispila wine and fell asleep right there on the white bedspread, forgetting can be seen on their nakedness. In the center, next to the sleeping, a little child to defecate.
At the end of this year, the artist learned the sad news - he died a talented Italian painter, representative of the classic Venetian school Vittore Carpaccio. That he dedicated his new Titian painting «The Entombment» (1523, Louvre, Paris).
Composition saturated pattern executed in a red-orange and black colors, and transmit dynamic story drama anxiety. Almost no background, only the gray sky and dark, almost black wood in the right corner. Left mournful figure of the Virgin and Marii Magdaliny consoling her that supports her shoulders. Both of them watched in horror as the three students are the lifeless body of Christ, to put it in a tomb. Foreground of the picture is filled with the radiance emanating from the body of Christ, as if illuminated from within. It is as if lit from within, filling the front of the canvas plan radiance. The painting is based on a combination of red and black colors, to convey the dramatic episode of anxiety and dynamically.
A large share of Titian’s work as court painter, took portraits of the Doges for the hall of the Grand Council, but, unfortunately, almost all of them were burnt during the numerous fires. A place of honor in the gallery of portraits of surviving court belonging to Titian, takes «Portrait of Federico II Gonzaga» (about 1525-1529 years., Museo del Prado, Madrid), on which the Doge was captured with his favorite lapdog. Gonzaga is depicted almost in full growth. His dark blue clothes, decorated with magnificent ornaments, gives the image of luxury and a certain solemnity. Doge face with thin aristocratic features and a neat well-groomed beard full of self-esteem. He looks at the viewer detached gaze. Elegant manicured thumbs Gonzaga pat the dog, which is pressed against the owner of all his body.
A series of losses
In the heyday of his social acceptance and demand for, the artist’s personal tragedy happened. During the birth of their second son of Titian, Cecilia have suddenly started bleeding heavily. This news has shocked much of the painter, and he, fearing the worst, he decided to get married immediately. Titian invited Cecilia to the best doctors, whose efforts she finally went to the amendment, but the artist changed his mind to marry. The news quickly spread through the whole of Venice, because Titian was a very famous artist and public figure. However, they are with Cecilia made a very modest wedding ceremony at home in the circle only the closest and native people.
It was in 1525, a little Titian stayed with the family, and when Cecilia was strong enough, he went back to Venice, where it is expected many pending orders.
In 1530 Titian started a new canvas with a religious theme, «Supper at Emmaus» (Louvre, Paris). Traditional Gospel story painting depicts the risen Christ seated at a table covered with a white cloth. On either side of him sat his students standing next to the host institution and the waiter, watching this wonderful phenomenon. Christ blesses filed dishes gesture. The whole composition is very light, lyrical, sustained in the bright and gentle tones, it is written with light free strokes.
Time flies fast, and constantly busy Titian again reported serious condition of his wife. The artist throws everything and rushes home. He barely has time to catch Cecilia has changed beyond recognition. After the birth of their third child - daughter called Lavinia, a poor woman reopened severe bleeding. Despite all the efforts of the doctors, after a sleepless night, which was conducted at the bedside of his wife Titian, August 5, 1530, she died.
Artist unusually hard suffered this loss. According to the description of contemporaries, he lived as in a dream, continued to be engaged in something, met people, but somehow could not see anything, and no one heard. All thoughts were busy Titian beloved Cecilia, the former for many years his best friend, a devoted wife and loving mother of their children. Only after he lost it, the artist realized how many brought light into his life this woman, formerly a noble and humble. Cecilia filled his home with warmth and comfort, it is surrounded by Titian infinite care, that nothing prevented him to create his masterpieces. One day, the artist wandered through his house, thinking of her irreparable loss, when he came across an unfinished canvas, which has long been expected by the customer. It was the «Madonna with the rabbit» (about 1530, Louvre, Paris). Tears froze eyes Titian - with a picture of Cecilia looked at him, as embodied in the image of a woman standing on the left of the Virgin Mary.
Time passed, the children grew up. Two sons Titian were complete opposites of each other: Senior Pomponio was selfish and lazy, and the younger Orazio - on the contrary, calm and accommodating. Little Lavinia was very similar to his mother. Titian every day more clearly understood, that he has more pressure forces in the house, where every corner reminds him of his dead wife. But Venice artist too tired, he did not want to go back there. Painter been looking for a new home in a quiet secluded area. So, September 1, 1531 he did it - he rented a two-storey house with a large terrace and a mezzanine on the outskirts of Biri Grande.
In 1532 Titian starts his first portrait, painted in full growth. This is the «Portrait of Emperor Charles V with his dog» (Museo del Prado, Madrid).
Hours of posing contributed to tying between the artist and the emperor is very friendly relations. The emperor sincerely Titian told about his life and about himself. Charles V was infinitely tired of power a man whose life was filled with soulless official and formal. That is why the painter depicted the Emperor in simple clothes, not in a luxurious gala suit, thus emphasizing that his character, first of all, people. Only being faithful to his life was a dog, depicted next to it. According to witnesses, Charles V was very pleased with the picture and admire the skill of the artist. Filled with feelings Emperor goodbye hugged painter. Sweet Carlos V, who was present at the same subsequently inundated with orders painter, ensuring his work for a long time.
Following this, Titian overtook another loss - the death of his mother. This event left him in an even deeper depression. Only in his new home joyful kids laughter helped the master to hold and move on. And yet, a few years the artist lived as a recluse, for days without leaving his studio. He is an extraordinary amount of work, and free time devoted to children.
the heights of excellence
Keep house, after the loss of Cecilia in the house of Titian became his sister Orsa, she was engaged in child rearing. Time passed, and one day Orsa noticed that every evening to the home of the painter sailed up the gondola, in which sat a young woman, always try to go unnoticed. She quickly climbed the outside stairs directly into the artist’s studio, located on the second floor. Of course, no one did not occur to blame the painter, on the contrary, native had hoped that the emergence of a new lover somehow brighten privacy Titian and help him to find joy in life again. The result of this interest are such works, depicting the beautiful stranger, as a «portrait of a young woman in a hat with a feather,» «Girl in a fur cloak», as well as a great «Venera Urbinskaya».
«The girl in a fur cape,» written in 1535 (Art - History Museum, Vienna) was a custom job and is an allegory of marriage. A young girl is shown on the canvas playfully covering a fur cape chest, while her second chest is bare. Timid girl look and delicate blush on her cheeks only emphasizes the erotic meaning of the painting, which consists in contrasting female flesh and fluffy fur. A similar composition and painting «Portrait of a young woman in a hat with a feather» (1536, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg), where the model has also bared his right shoulder, chest and arm. Under the fur-lined cloak is seen translucent white shirt. On the girl’s head hat with feathers, decorated with stones. In both paintings, the artist does not hide his admiration, on the verge of frank lust, the beauty of the young woman’s body. The snow-white skin of the heroine, written by light, weightless strokes, contrasts sharply with a rich dark background, due to which her image seems even more delicate and fragile.
And in 1538, commissioned by the ruler of Venice Guidobaldo della Rovere, who later will be a repeat customer of Titian, it was written painting «Venera Urbinskaya» (Art Gallery of the Uffizi, Florence). This picture was a wedding gift to the future wife of the Duke. Golden-haired Venus, lying in a graceful pose on a white bed sheets, full of bliss, in her right hand a branch of wild rose. Her gaze is calm and sure, she is not shy about their nakedness. A perfect body is written so thin and light, it seems that it comes from the glow. At the foot of Venus instead of traditional Amurchik located and sleeps little dog. In the background is a picture room, bathed in the bright light of the sun in the morning. On Venus, the window is a pot with myrtle, symbolizing marriage and fidelity. Near her chest two maids scurrying around, pick up an outfit for the morning hostess toilet. Oddly, Venera Titsiana did not nebozhitelnitsa and very real human woman, appears to us to openly naked beauty.
If you follow the approximate chronology, the farther we know works is the painting «Crowning with Thorns». This picture is available in two versions: one of them is kept in the Louvre (1542), and the other in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich (1572-1576gg.). The composition of the two patterns are very similar. In the center of the canvas is the tortured figure of Christ surrounded by five torturers and three steps leading to the site of a public flogging. The only difference is in the background. In the early work, a cruel mockery of Jesus scene takes place against a background of brightly lit stone arches, above which stands a bust of Emperor Tiberius. At a later picture at the top of the canvas is discernible only lighted chandelier. In both cases, Jesus humbly endures humiliation and pain of people furiously attacked him with a spear. After all, he has already forgiven them, and this gives him the image of true greatness.
In 1545 Titian created another outstanding portrait of the Venetian doge «Portrait of Doge Andrea Gritti» (National Gallery, Washington). On it captured the governor with a stern look cruel eyes, issuing his ruthless and oppressive nature. Clothing deep red once again emphasizes his charisma and desire for leadership. On the doge cape road, like a luminous fabric brown-golden tones and a headdress.
Closed and uncommunicative Titian had very few close friends. One of them was a poet and writer Pietro Lretino. They were two very different people: Lretino was very cheerful, loving, loved luxury, feasting and celebrations, talkative and confident, he had a great connection. Titian liked in him optimism, kindness, charisma, and that therefore it is very well versed in art and literature. Titian even became the godfather of one of Loretino daughters. In 1545 he painted his portrait. The painting «Portrait of Pietro Lretino» (Palazzo Pitti, Florence) almost all the space of the canvas is occupied by the figure of the poet. The canvas is written using many variations of red and golden colors, they will fill it with energy and power of the spirit, revealing the character of the hero. There is evidence that Lretino was dissatisfied with the work, in particular, he did not like that gold chain (obtained as a gift from King Francis I) is almost not visible on his chest and shines too dim. However, it could be a joke poet, misconstrued eyewitness.
In the same, 1545 Titian wrote «portrait of a young man» (Palazzo Pitti, Florence). From paintings to the viewer looks handsome man with hypnotic and mesmerizing look greenish eyes. For a long time it was thought that the painting depicts the Duke of Howard, so painting called «Portrait of a young Englishman.» But in 1928 the art critic Venturi proposed his own version, backed by strong evidence. He believed that a man on a canvas - a lawyer Ippolito Riminaldi, another friend of Titian, whom he liked to meet during his trips to Ferrara. With regard to the composition of fabric, it is very simple: in front of us a young man in a strict black jacket, from under the collar and sleeves of which peep white lace cuffs. His left hand rests on his hip, and the right he holds the gloves. The overall color of the canvas is very low-key, it is built on a combination of two colors: black and gray. Dilute them only white spots cuffs and brown gloves. It is striking how accurately and subtly written out of his face with a thoughtful, intelligent eyes. In the guise of his nobility shines through.
In 1548 Titian painted another portrait of Charles V. The Emperor recognized artists, with whom approached before that, he was tired of the type of blood spilled and lives just waiting for the upcoming meeting with his unforgettable wife. Filled with genuine compassion, Titian gave was able to convey his feelings to the «Portrait of Charles V» (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). Here the emperor is shown sitting in a chair against a background of deserted dreary landscape, from which he blows cold and longing. Charles V, seated in an armchair, dressed all in black, like forgetting to remove a glove. Red floor sharp contrast with the colors of his clothes and headgear. Emperor very sad, pensive and alone.
The perfection of style
The last fifteen years of the artist’s life, when he changed his eighth decade, called the late period of his work. This is the time when Titian again turns to his favorite mythological theme, which he always interpreted in their own individual way.
By 1533 it includes the painting «Venus and Adonis» (Museo del Prado, Madrid), the plot of which shows us the scene of parting. Venus is trying to keep a loved one, absorbed in a thirst for the hunt and not to listen to her warnings of impending danger. Trying to keep Adonis, bursting with the force of her embrace, Venus foot accidentally knocks a vase. On the background of the picture, under the dense foliage of the tree, quietly sleeping Cupid, designed to protect their love. Dynamic and exciting nature of the story is in sharp contrast with the landscape around, full of tranquility and peace, or that it does not portend disaster. In this hunt, which killed Adonis, Tiziano sees a metaphor for human life: people are always looking for something, they want more, they are willing to risk life and limb to go against fate, forgetting even about God, which for them is inevitably punish. The picture was an unprecedented success with the public. The artist had to make about twenty copies of paintings with different variations of similar stories.
Second incredibly popular painting by Titian, which he had copied many times, was «Venus with a Mirror», written about 1555 (National Gallery, Washington). Her blonde Venus, covering his chest with his left hand, right, she hides under the bright veil knees. Two chubby Cupid holding a mirror in front of her. Cheeks burning goddess charming blush, which symbolizes the blossoming youth and beauty. Masterpiece was in Russia, but in 1931, by order of the government of the USSR, and in spite of the opinion of the Directorate of the State Hermitage, was sold to a private individual. Later the picture was in the National Gallery in Washington.
Another masterpiece of the late works of Titian is painting «Rape of Europa» (1559- 1562 gg., The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston), the plot of which reproduces one of the episodes of «Metamorphoses» of Ovid. Technically, the picture is made freely and safely, it is distinguished by the last wizard painted broad strokes careless. If you look at the picture closely, it is difficult to understand that at all on it is drawn only from a distance and offers us a great masterpiece by Titian. In fact, these paintings were portents of Impressionism, when you look at them, it seems that all the work was written at a time, easily, naturally, with a flourish.
In the spring of 1559 Titian was in an unpleasant situation. His youngest son Orazio went to Milan, where he was to receive from the treasury a very large sum of money belonging to his father. On the way home, the young man was attacked, beaten and robbed him. As it turned out, the robbery was masterminded by the sculptor Leone Leoni, also worked at the royal court. Titian immediately suspected Leone wrote a letter to Philip II, the text of which has come to us, «Leone, who knew about the payment of state benefits and encourage the instigation of the devil, Orazio decided to deprive of life, in order to appropriate the money... He invited Orazio to him and invited him to live in his house. My son rejected this proposal and this scoundrel, banished from Spain for Lutheranism and fueled enemy of the Lord God, I decided to commit murder with the help of accomplices. Crawlers Orazio attacked with swords and daggers in their hands, after throwing his head network. Not expecting such a betrayal, my poor Orazio fell, receiving a six serious wounds. If Orazio died, on whom I placed all my hopes in approaching old age, then under the weight of grief, I swear, I would have lost his mind. « At the end of the letter he demanded to punish Leoni with the utmost rigor of the law. Sculptor was arrested, but after he paid a fine, was released.
Titian did not have time to recover from this shock, as the death of his brother Francesco. Biographies of artists suggest that in the same period in childbirth died beloved daughter Lavinia artist. The succession of these events very powerfully struck the state of mind of the master.
In 1550, at the age of seventy-three years, the artist began to write «Self-Portrait» (State Museum of Arts, Berlin), completed just eleven years. Titian on it appears before the audience not decrepit and feeble old man who remained humbly wait for his death. On the contrary, we see before us is a strong and confident person. On the broad shoulders of the master fur cape thrown over, under it is white shirt, which is clearly visible gold chain. The fingers of his hands drumming on the table, that characterizes his restless disposition and concentration. It seems that in a moment the artist boldly stand up and stride will do soi next masterpiece. In Titian’s narrowed look, we see the wisdom and genuine interest in life. Most likely, this self-portrait was created for children as to the death of the painter was in his house.
Around 1565 Titian received the order for the painting «The Penitent Mariya Magdalina» (The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg). Model for the paintings become a kind of Julia Festina, admire the master mop of long blond hair. The picture is very like the Duke of Gonzaga, he immediately ordered a copy of the canvas to give it a kind of poet. The work was such a resounding success that Titian decided immediately to make multiple copies, changing only the position of each character hands, head tilt and the surrounding landscape background. Titian biographer Ridolfi indicates six paintings by Titian with the penitent Mariey Magdalinoy. One of the surviving versions of the canvas is stored in Moscow in a private collection. But, according to experts, the best one is the one that is represented in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. On her way repentant Mary’s most chaste. Her perfect body covered with a light translucent dress and a striped cloak, and spilled over her shoulders and breasts flowing hair. Kayuschayasya Magdalina looks at the sky with a look of remorse, her eyes full of tears and despair. In the foreground of the picture Christian symbols - the skull and the disclosure of Scripture.
In 1565 Titian created another of his best masterpieces - «Portrait of antiquarian Jacopo Strada» (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). The picture perfectly conveys the nature of the collector shown in «my element» - around the old books, coins, on the wall of either a picture, or a part of an ancient manuscript. Jacopo shows unseen companion statue of white marble, his face and whole posture full of energy, inspiration and even passion. The web has unusually harmonious colors. Clothes antique dealer and all its surroundings formed in the warm colors creating a certain atmosphere solemnity. This picture is a prime example of «a» of painting, open Titian in his later years. Later, this area, with its wealth of color and tone, and unusually skillful transmission of light and shade, will develop artists such as Rembrandt and Caravaggio. But it will be more than 100 years later, and now, Titian, who is already in a very advanced age, endures many hardships and personal grief, continues to work.
The last years of life of the master
In recent years, the artist often wrote for the soul. The house was always full of Titian - came to him many students, artists, collectors and distinguished guests in the whole of Italy and from other countries. However, prone to melancholy and brooding Titian, in fact, remained alone. He often recalled the young and beloved Cecilia, indulged in thoughts of the impermanence of life and longed for all those who took away his time. The result of these sad reasoning and emotional loneliness was painting «Allegory of Time and Mind,» written about 1565 (National Gallery, London), which is considered a kind of testament master descendants. According to tradition, the picture should be read from left to right, that is, counter-clockwise, and from top to bottom. Old in a red cap symbolizes the past, the black-bearded man - now, and the young man - the future. Animals drawn in the lower part of the painting is also symbolic: the wolf - human force that takes away the past, the lion represents the present and the dog barking wakes her future.
In 1570 Titian creates a picture of «The Shepherd and Nymph» (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). This easy, free to write cloth was not anyone’s order, the artist created it for himself. Naked nymph lying on the skins of animals killed, turned his back to the viewer and slightly turned his head. The young woman does not bother her nakedness. Next to it is a shepherd, who is about to begin to play a musical instrument, though perhaps he had just stopped, fascinated by the beauty of words or character. General color picture deliberately thickened by the author, it creates a certain mystery and innuendo in the relationship of the main characters, enhanced enabled brown ash and dark tones. Blurred background landscape, there is seen a piece of wood broken off as if left after the storm. It has no effect on the lovers, living in their own world of beauty and luxury, and did not notice anything around. Despite the romantic composition of the picture, the chaos in the surrounding landscape of the character