Francisco de Goya and Lucentes (1746-1828) automatic translate
The outstanding representative of the Spanish school of painting Francisco Jose de Goya-i-Lucientes is a unique artist who managed to translate in his art the tragic fate of the Spanish people, their hopes and innumerable sufferings, stubbornly endured with endless vitality. Inspiration for the artist was the real events that took place in his country. Having no other authority than the power of art, the artist through his paintings expressed a personal attitude to the environment around him and to what was happening in his beloved homeland.
The early years of the great master
The future great artist Francisco Goya was born in a small village of Fuentetodos, located among the Aragonese rocks in northern Spain, March 30, 1746 in the family of the master-gilded Jose Goya. The father of the artist was not a commoner, he came from the family of a well-to-do notary, who received his specialty in Zaragoza. This situation allowed him to marry a representative of the lowest strata of the Spanish nobility, Donja Garcia Lucientes. After a modest wedding, the young family moved to an estate that was inherited and was located in Fuentetodos. According to the Spanish law of the time, nobles could only live on the incomes brought by their possessions, and did not have the right to work.
With this state of affairs, the Goya family could barely make ends meet. This forced the head of the family to move his household back to Zaragoza, where he could take up his trade. What happened in 1759. After settling his financial situation after the move, the father of the family sent his three sons, Thomas, Camillo, and Francisco to Joaquin’s primary school. I must say, the education that the boys received there is difficult to call good, Father Joaquin preferred theology to reading and writing, which affected the entire subsequent life of the artist. Until the end of his life Goya wrote with errors, and his pronunciation and lexical reserve accurately betrayed him as a commoner. True, it should be noted that at the end of the 18th century in Spain a good education was available only to a handful of the elect.
After leaving school, Francisco enters the Jesuit school in Zaragoza. His mentor, Father Pignatelle, immediately noticed the outstanding artistic talent in the boy and recommended him to his relative Jose Lusan-i-Martinez, who was once a court painter. Father Francisco was not against it and paid his son artistic lessons for four years. During this time, Francisco Goya not only comprehended the basics of painting and drawing, but also created numerous engravings and etchings from the works of outstanding Spanish masters. Already at this time, Francisco showed incredible tenacity and determination. To achieve maximum expressiveness of the image of various movements of the human body, the young artist, in addition to Lucian’s studio, also visited the sculpture school of Juan Ramirez. In it he performed copies of sculptures and created student sketches. It should be noted that in Spain of this period there was a taboo on the images of the naked body, especially the female, so the sculpture for Goya was almost the only way to study the human anatomy.
Due to his persistence, Francisco quickly proved himself to be a brilliant copyist, subtly capturing the features of artistic style and style of famous painters. Thanks to this, in 1760, he received his first order for the painting of the reliquary in the church in Fuentetodos. Unfortunately, this work was completely destroyed in 1936 during the Civil War in Spain. But its appearance can be reconstructed from the surviving photographs. The outer sides of the wooden flaps of the reliquary were decorated with the image «The Appearance of the Madonna del Pilar before St. James», and on the inside were depicted «Saint Francis de Paula» and «Madonna and Child». According to the surviving evidence, contemporaries highly appreciated the work of the artist, although Goya himself, who saw her when he was already very old, was indignant: «Do not say that I painted it!».
In 1763, the seventeen-year-old Goya, who finally decided to relate his life to art, left Zaragoza and went to Madrid. The first years of the artist’s stay in the Spanish capital are shrouded in secrets and legends. From reliable information that has come down to us, we only know that at the end of 1763, immediately after his arrival in Madrid, Francisco filed a petition with the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in San Fernando, on granting him a scholarship, but was refused. What Goya did in Madrid for the next two years is completely unknown. In 1766, Francisco participated in the Academy announced a competition on the theme of Spanish history. The task was formulated as follows: «Marta, Empress of Byzantium, arrives in Burgos to King Alfonso the Wise to ask him for part of the sum that the sultan appointed for the ransom of her husband, captured by Emperor Baldwin, and the Spanish monarch orders to give her this sum.» Ramon Bayer won the gold medal, and Goya failed, which was only one of a series of failures that haunted him during the first period of his work.
But participation in the competition brought a certain benefit to Goya, on which he met Ramon Bayeux and his brother Francisco - a member of the academic jury, to which he immediately entered the pupils. For about three years the young painter lived and studied in the house of a new mentor, during which time he passionately fell in love with his sister Josef. Heart attachment did not stop Goya from leaving in Rome in 1769, where he continued his education.
Unfortunately, no reliable information about the two years of life of Francisco de Goya in Italy is not preserved. The only extant data mention the artist’s participation in the competition held by the Parma Academy of Fine Arts. As part of the competition, he created a painting «Hannibal, looking from the height of the Alps to the Italian fields.» The canvas enjoyed some success among the members of the jury, however, Goya was again unlucky. With a margin of just one vote, the gold medal of the contest again went to the next.
Recognition of talent
In 1771, Francisco Goya returns to Zaragoza, disappointed and tired of failures. After a few months, the artist finally smiled luck, he received his first order. It was required to perform a series of religious paintings in the chapel of the palace of the local Count Gabard de Sobradiel. Goya tried his best, in the end, the frescoes were very high quality and liked the customer. This was the first significant success of the painter in the professional field.
Soon the artist was instructed to perform a series of sketches for the frescoes of the dome of the Cathedral of the Madonna del Pilar in Zaragoza. During the month of work, Goya managed to create works that shocked the members of the commission for the reconstruction of the cathedral. This was the second success, proving the ability of Francisco to create excellent frescoes. Although, it should be mentioned that a significant role in the fact that the order went to Goyer, played the price of works exhibited by the artist himself by ten thousand reais less than other contestants. Be that as it may, by the middle of 1772 the artist had finished painting the dome. The fresco, called «Worship of angels named after the Lord,» was executed in the Baroque style. Rich with numerous figures of angels depicted in the image of beautiful women, a variety of angles of which emphasizes the dynamics of the composition, built on continuous movement, she brought the artist a long-awaited and deserved success.
Participation in the creation of the picturesque decoration of the Cathedral of the Madonna del Pilar was a turning point in the artist’s career. In addition to respecting fellow citizens and material well-being, Goya also received a constant stream of orders, which is so important for any artist. His next work was the creation of a whole series of frescoes for the monastery de Aula Dei and the church di Menuel. This allowed Francisco to gain a proper position in society and become the most successful artist in Zaragoza. The moment came when Goya finally could afford to marry.
In early spring of 1773 the artist went to Madrid to his teacher Francisco Bayeu to ask for the hand of his sister Josefa. Everything turned out well, and happy lovers were married during a magnificent ceremony, held on July 25 of the same year. Immediately after the wedding, the newlyweds went to Zaragoza, where many unfinished orders awaited Francisco. Strangely enough, we did not get practically any data about the life partner of the great painter, neither in private nor in state archives does not have her letters or reviews about her contemporaries, there is even no information about the number of children born in almost forty years of their life together. It is believed that all the children of the artist died at a young age, and only one of his sons - Francisco Javier Pedro became a real support to his father and the continuer of his work. Biographers and art historians can only assume that Josef was a devoted wife and caring guardian of the home, but obviously had very little interest in secular life. Only the date of her death - 1812 - is known. Amazing is the fact that for a long family life, Francisco Goya wrote just one portrait of his wife.
Finding the situation at the royal court
In early 1774, large-scale works began on the reconstruction of tapestries of the royal manufactory of Santa Barbara. The commission for the restoration included Antoine Rafael Mengsu and Francisco Bayeu. The second was responsible for the distribution among the pretending artists of orders for the creation of sketches of future tapestries. Thanks to this, Goya and Ramon Bayeu received a large order, which provided them with a constant and well-paid job. This order contributed to the artist’s move to Madrid along with his entire family.
Theme of the first sketches ordered to the painter was hunting and fishing. Goya quickly performed sketches of thematic scenes on the cardboard. Despite the rather dry and restrained manner of the sketches, with almost undeveloped space around the characters, they received the approval of the king, and the artist received a new order, the theme of which were skits from the life of ordinary Spaniards.
Here, and revealed the true talent of the painter. These sketches laid the beginning of a whole series of brilliant works that made the artist famous for many centuries. The heroes of his cardboards, he chose brightly dressed young women (mahi) and their colorful satellites (maho). The compositions are based on the stories from the life of the people: games, holidays, street scenes. Sound rich tone of the paintings realistically convey the carefree mood of universal fun. In his works, the artist with great observation transferred a variety of folk types and bright national costumes, as well as leisure and manners of urban youth. According to the tastes of his time, the master slightly idealized the figures of his characters. But, the color palette of the artist is shown here in all its glory - numerous color nuances of different tones immediately identified Goya among his contemporaries.
The most striking works of this period include paintings «The seller of dishes» (1779, the Museo del Prado, Madrid), «The National Day of St. Isidore» (1788, the Museo del Prado, Madrid), «Mach and its admirers» (1777), The Prado Museum, Madrid) and others. But the best work among them is cardboard to the tapestry «Umbrella» (Museo del Prado, Madrid), written in 1776. The sketch is a simple genre scene. In the foreground sits a pretty girl in a graceful pose, as if showing off to the viewer, on her lips a captivating smile. The girl’s young companion is to her left, shielding the young lady from the sunlight with an open umbrella. The composition of the cardboard is permeated with the joy and carelessness of being. The highlight of the picture was a complex, almost fantastic lighting, which Goya creates a harmonious-musical color, built on pastel tones.
The enormous popularity of this work at the royal court was affected by the French Enlightenment, dominated by the minds of the courtiers, with its departure from the strict canons so revered earlier in Spain. Thanks to this success among the aristocracy, on May 7, 1780 Francisco Goya was unanimously elected to the new members of the Royal Academy of Arts of San Fernando. Already in 1785, he became its vice-director, after another ten years - the director of the painting department at the Academy.
In the period between 1786 to 1791 years, in the cardboard of the master there is a certain change of intonations. More and more in his works, the desire to convey not the external appeal of the plot, but the emotional state of the heroes, which became more «earthly» lacking the external gloss and beauty, so characteristic of earlier works of the artist, is manifested in his works. This is clearly evident in such works as «The Blind Man Game» (circa 1788-1790, the Museo del Prado, Madrid) and «The Wounded Mason» (1786 Museo del Prado, Madrid), which became one of the key works of this period.
The painting features a truly dramatic storyline: young workers bear in the hands of their comrade, who fell from the heights. In their poses and how the artist interprets the volumes of their bodies, there is a certain adherence to the master of the traditions of classicism. The cool coloring of the composition is based on a combination of shades of blue, gray and ocher colors. Although the work does not yet have that piercing tragic sound, so characteristic of many of the subsequent paintings of Goya, it already fully reflects the basic intonations of the mature work of the master.
At the end of his work for the royal manufactory, Goya creates another one of his masterpiece - «Doll» («Playing in the Pellet», 1791-1792, Museo del Prado, Madrid). After working at the Santa Barbara factory for about eighteen years, the artist created more than sixty cartons. Over the years, the master has acquired not only influential friends and patrons, but also a lot of envious and ill-wishers.
Evolution of the artist’s portrait style
Working on sketches for tapestries, Goya simultaneously wrote a lot of custom-made portraits. His early works of this genre speak of the artist’s great desire at all costs to succeed, this is particularly noticeable by the way the painter flattered his noble models.
An example is the ceremonial «Portrait of Count Floridablanca» (1783, Bank of Urquicho, Madrid), in which the all-powerful Prime Minister is depicted standing full-length, in his office, dressed in all regalia of power and might. The personal belongings surrounding the count testify to his hobbies, his figure in the picture is highlighted with bright colors, and contrasts sharply with the environment. The Prime Minister is depicted not just one - in the back of the room is his secretary, and to the left of the Count Goya portrayed himself with one of his works. In the picture, Floridablanca does not notice the surrounding people and looks calmly in front of him, also happened in life. The Count reacted coldly to the work of the artist and did not even pay for it to the painter, who had high hopes for acquaintance with such an influential person, expecting to see in his face a patron.
The artist learned a bitter lesson, and later, in the same year, while visiting the villa of the brother of the King of Spain, the infante of Don Luis de Bourbon, where he wrote his family portrait, he no longer strove to flatter high-ranking people. In his work on this picture, there is clearly a tendency to convey the depth of the characters and the individuality of each model.
The composition «Portrait of the Infanta Family by Don Luis de Bourbon» (1783, the fund of Maniani rock Mamiano, Parma) is built on the principle of everyday genre scenes. The whole family of don Luis gathered around a small table where the infante spreads solitaire. But the real center of the composition is not he, but his wife Maria Theresa, dressed in light, as if shining clothes. Her hair is combed by the hairdresser standing behind her. In the left part of the canvas Goya again painted himself, working on this picture. Quite large canvas (248 x 330 cm) well demonstrates the increased skill of the artist. The artist managed to convey the characters of the characters in a tactful and at the same time very realistic manner. The coloring of the works is based on a mixture of dark warm colors with small accents of blue and green, giving the canvas a sonorous musical sound.
After the creation of this portrait, Goya finally found what he dreamed of - acquaintance with the powerful and powerful patrons, who became the Duchess Alameda Osuna and Alba. The artist managed to get along with them both, despite the fact that they were sworn rivals always and in everything. A new stage in his life began, his career was now doomed to a rapid rise.
Soon the artist began work on the portrait of the bride of the count of Floridablanca. «Portrait of the Marquise de Pontejos-i-Sandoval, the Duchess of Pontejos» (1786, National Picture Gallery, Washington) is made in the strict framework of the ceremonial portrait. The style of work is very close to the earliest works of this genre. The figure shows the awning at the backdrop of the ideal landscape (this technique for female portraits Goya will use until the end of the XVIII century), the whole image of her natural and calm. Beautiful silk dress the heroine, written out by the artist with great skill, distracting the viewer’s attention from the sad expression on her face.
Two years later, Goya write another his famous group portrait - «Duke Family Osunskogo» (1788, Museo del Prado, Madrid). This work has shown the new style of the artist, who in the future will be the most vivid manifestation of his individual style. The main feature of his work becomes a focus on the mental state of his characters. In this case, to divert attention demanding sight of famous customers from its own assessment of their personalities, Goya carefully and skillfully draws all the fine details of their fine clothes and jewelry. Background portraits becomes monotonous, so nothing distracts the viewer from seeing the models. For the clearest examples of portraits of this period include «Portrait of Don Manuel Osorio de Zuniga» (1788, Metropolitan Museum, Nyo-Iork).
Soon, finally fulfilled the dream of the artist - in April 1789 Goya was so I wish them the post of court painter. I must say, the success went to his head so that he was ignoring the manufacture paperboards for tapestries. This brought on the wrath of the artist director of the factory, immediately write a complaint to the king. Old mentor of the painter Francisco Bayeu had to work hard to make amends that his relative and hush up the scandal. Fortunately for Goya, everything worked, and he began to work quietly in the court, doing portraits of those in power. So, in 1795 he wrote his famous «Portrait of Maria Teresa Cayetana de Silva, the Duchess of Alba» (Museo del Prado, Madrid). The image of the Duchess of very showy, white dress contrasts sharply with a mop of curly black hair and red accents in the form of a wide satin belt tightening thin waist of the heroine, and the red bows on her breasts and hair. This contrast color combination gives the whole canvas Majeure sound.
Painting of the church of St. Anthony
In addition to the standing orders on etchings and portraits, court painter Francisco de Goya received a very honorable and profitable orders to create monumental paintings. So in 1798, Korol Karlos IV commissioned the artist painted the dome and walls had just finished the temple of San Antonio de la Florida.
The church was built on the orders of the king at the time by the famous architect Fontana who was able to complete the work in just six years, from 1792 to 1798 years. Frescoes of the church were to talk about the life of St. Antoniya Paduanskogo, a Franciscan monk who lived in the XIII century. For thirty-six years allotted to him, St. Anthony find fame as an outstanding orator. Stories and legends and his virtuous life, miracles and insightful sermons were known throughout the country, it was even called «Light of the Order.»
In work on the murals the artist free rein was given, and Goya took advantage of this chance to rethink the traditional canons of religious art.
According to tradition, all coupon space to create frescoes had to be occupied by the images of angels, the cross or Christ. Goya decided to put the report, devoted to the miracle of the resurrection of the dead saint Anthony, achievements in the eyes of the amazed crowd. With this gesture, the artist raised saint who dedicate the temple itself. Angels and archangels painter placed on the walls and arches of the girth, and the little angels occupied the sails.
resurrection scene in Goya acquired quite a realistic interpretation. St. Anthony is depicted with his companions surrounded by a diverse audience, which is closely watching his actions. In an effort to make the mural maximum realism, the artist focused on the transmission of images of ordinary people, depicting a crowd as if she came here straight from the streets of Madrid. The circular composition solution gives the product of the effect of continuous movement and dynamism. In contrast, realistic images of the central fresco, representatives of the heavenly host Goya painted idealized and exquisitely refined. The painting of the church is still considered one of the best monumental and decorative works of Goya
Image of human vices
90 years of the 18th century was a turning point in the minds and work of Goya. To rethink the life and work of the artist, as is often the case, it prompted serious illness. The first attacks of an unknown illness come upon the painter in autumn 1792. Violent headaches, alternating with dizziness, ended in partial paralysis. Most unfortunate artist was afraid of losing his sight. Illness crippled morale Goya, he constantly was in a gloomy mood, and his family seriously feared for his life. Fortunately, these attacks resulted in relatively well, the painter felt much better already next spring.
In the summer the artist almost completely recovered from the disease, though not without losses. The disease is completely deprived of his hearing, but this did not prevent the master immediately after recovery to take up the brush. Experienced suffering and fear of death awakened in the artist passionate and genuine interest in the spiritual and social human being. He looked with new eyes at the unit of Spanish society and rethink their own system of values. The joy of life and the sun shine for a long time left the artist’s work.
All this prompted the artist to create a series of works called «Caprichos» (Fad). It was composed of eighty etchings, created in the period from 1797 to 1799. A fantastic grotesque artist reflected the tense social situation and all the uglier side of the feudal system in Spain.
All figures ridiculed human vices: cruelty, ignorance, cowardice, hypocrisy, selfishness, gullibility, greed and more. All etchings series built on the contrast of light and shadow, expressed large black and white spots. Goya has shown remarkable talent symbolist and great ingenuity. All the characters «Caprichos» have very bright personality, expressing the defect which they represent. Posture, gestures, facial expressions of the characters are so expressive that it becomes impossible to determine where is the truth and fiction.
The first work in the series «Caprichos» are devoted mainly vices, devoured by the female soul: insidious, fickleness and deceit. On these pages, young damsels cowardly cheat their cavaliers, and ugly old woman pimps involved in corruption inexperienced girls.
Since the sheet 37, are drawings dedicated ignorance: they appear image donkeys, which are treated, play music, teach each other, protrude speeches and posing monkeys. All subsequent etchings by grotesque demonstrate to us as the moral ugliness of people begets evil. Black night witches and goblins make their rites, laugh, grimace, gather at the Sabbath and was plagued by its unfortunate victims. But when the sun rises, all beasts do not disappear or die, they just change their appearance, becoming conventional, outwardly respectable people. And so indefinitely.
43 leaf - engraving called «The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters» - has become one of the most famous. Goya provided him with interesting accompanying commentary: «Imagination abandoned by reason, produces unseen monsters, but together with the mind, it becomes the mother of all arts and soluble source of miracles.» In fact, such comments were made by the artist to each sheet of the collection, but, according to contemporaries, like the description of the plot is further complicated by his perception, «turning a blind eye to anyone who did not have a clue.»
As conceived by the painter, «Caprichos» had to make compatriots rise and dare confront his position imposed by the aristocracy. In 1799 Goya published at his own expense a series of three hundred copies. Four copies, even before their arrival on the market, bought the Duchess of Osuna. 27 more were sold in the next few years. However, after some time, «Caprichos» still have gained popularity in the environment of the Romantic artists.
The evolution of the style and outlook
All this time, the master never stopped working in the genre of the portrait, which he always ordered the court aristocracy. Moving away from the old, somewhat superficial interpretation of characters and plots, he moved to a rigorous intellectual realism. Paintings created at the turn of the 18th and 19th century, characterized by subtle expressive formation of artistic techniques that allowed the artist to fully reveal the inner essence of the characters. These works have already reflects the new trends in art, close to the fine ideals of the Romantic era.
Master begins to pay more attention to psychology, he is trying to emphasize the tragic tightness of the individual under the yoke of external circumstances. Goya if evaluates the potential of the individual, regardless of his social status. Often, this results in caustic sarcasm, clearly marked in a number of portraits of the powerful. Another feature of the new period of the artist became rich color palette and the accentuated plastic volumes, silvery-gray, the air coloring the 1790s will forever remain in the past.
In the early 19th century, Goya received a large order from the royal family in the performance of her portraits series. One of the most remarkable works of this period was the «Portrait of King Carlos IV Family» (1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid). During the execution of this large-scale paintings (whose size is 280 x 336 cm), the artist managed to create individual portraits of each member of the family crowned. Work on themselves family portrait lasted about a year.
The first thing that attracts attention when you look at this picture, this grandeur suits all royals discharged with great skill. Luxury tissue weightless veil iridescent valuables and jewels power overshadow images are characters themselves. The effect sought and the artist. Because if you look at the stiff pompous persons family members, you may notice subtle psychological characteristics that Goya gave to each of them.
For example, the image of Queen Marii Luizy issued with photographic clarity. Painter realistically portrayed her hooked nose, a double chin and thin lips stretched into a smile. Maria Luisa stands in the center of the canvas, standing around her younger children, left depicts Korol Karlos IV of, and the right of the Queen - her eldest son in a blue silk jacket. Subsequently, it will become a tyrant Ferdinand VII (look into his angry face). Near the Ferdinand is his bride, she turned away from the viewer, as at the time of the painting, the agreement about their marriage has not been achieved. In the left corner of the picture, in the deep shade of Goya painted himself.
Portrait of a very subtly conveys the relationships within the family. If we look at how are the heroes of the picture, it is evident that they are similar to the frozen atomized crowd, filled him all the canvas. The artist deliberately emphasizes not the consistency of their attitudes and gestures. Both the color of the picture is built on a combination of fragmented unusually colorful spots.
Despite the fact that none of the crowned family showed no shadow of resentment about the finished product (the queen even teased her «poorly released» appearance), the canvas was the last orders received by an artist from the royal family.
But the most significant works of the artist of this period (1800 - 1803 years) have become canvases «Dressed maha» and «Naked maha» (Museo del Prado, Madrid). Presumably, these two works were created by the order of Prime Minister Manuel Godoy. According to sources, the original name of the film were «dressed Gypsy» and «Gypsy naked.» Female image created by the artist on these canvases embody a vibrant and sensual beauty, contrasts sharply with the cold canons of academicism. Reliable information about the identity of the girl, which served as a model for these works has survived. According to one version, it was the lover of Godoy, on the other - the Duchess of Alba, which is rumored to be linked rather lengthy relationship with the artist himself. However, no real evidence for this and was not found.
In the next two years, from 1804 to 1806, the artist creates a more number of interesting female characters. These include «Portrait of Fransiski Sabasa-and-Garcia» (1804god, National Gallery of Art, Washington), ’Portrait of Dona Teresa Sureda «(1804-1806., National Gallery, Washington) and» Portrait of Dona Isabel de Porsel Cabos « (about 1805, National gallery, London). All paintings are written in a free manner, different from his earlier works reserved. Master by gentle mixing on a plurality of related shades of tone, it is possible to achieve a very realistic interpretation models. Those young women are full of romantic impulse and postures and attitudes are determined. Dark paintings - a tribute to the tradition of the time, but, despite this, the artist manages to achieve a juicy sound in all colors and are incredibly realistic transfer of young girls. Another feature of the portraits is that the artist devotes to them their clothes and accessories, as in his earlier works, and personal features characters, their character and psychology.
Then, the artist creates another job with memorable images of women - «Mahi on the balcony» (1805-1812 years, the Metropolitan Museum, New York). On the canvas depicts two lovely young women sitting on the balcony. In the background, in dark colors discharged silhouettes of their satellites. Fragile figure girls and their crafty smiles and touching may look enticing and attractive, but the shape of their satellites guards and creates a sense of danger.
Soon after the war with France. Goya received many government orders for portraits of generals of the army, and in the intervals between them created etchings collected in the overall series, entitled «Disasters of War». Total, included a series of about eighty works. In them the painter portrayed the military action without embellishment. Nor any ostentatious heroism and courage, but what is actually happening in the war - a hardening of the human heart, capable of becoming any atrocities and betrayals.
A series of etchings on the war, was the pinnacle of realist artist. In many works reflect what he saw and experienced over the years himself a painter. The tragedy of the Spanish people is depicted ruthlessly truthful, without a drop of idealization: mountains of corpses, looting, fires, famine and death.
It should be noted that the purpose of the painter above all was not documentary accuracy, and expression through this series of works the tension and tragedy that he felt going through the war years. Deep subtext, the connection of reality and grotesque, allegory and fantasy next to the sober analysis of reality, and the sharp expressiveness achieved through sharp contrasts of black and white, predicted the development of entirely new genre of European engravings.
Cardboard «sad premonition of what was to come» (1810, National Library, Madrid) depicts a man in torn clothes, his arms spread out helplessly to the side, and his eyes were full of despair and tears, in silent question raised to the sky. On the background of the picture there is chaos and destruction, loss, which inevitably brings with it the hell of war. Etching opens the series «The Disasters of War» and is, in fact, its leitmotif.
All the horrors of war through a series of etchings of the terrible and frightening realism succession: countless corpses, violence against women, the execution of the rebels and the cart with the dead. Events, images, Picture Wizard, so accurately conveys the essence of military action that could serve to illustrate the totally experienced any of the whole of humanity in armed conflict. The artist was important to emphasize that victims of heinous international conflicts are not only soldiers of the official troops, but also defenseless civilians: children, elderly, women. The series was able to reach full collection only in 1863, after 35 years spent under French rule.
The end of the first decade of the XIX century it became more difficult for Spain, a difficult time. Discontent grew steadily in the country, and Korol Karlos IV proved to be a weak-willed politician and untenable. In fact, the country’s rules for his wife and her favorite - Prime Minister Manuel Godoy. They are completely subjugated King and squandered the treasury, bringing Spain to almost complete ruin. This caused riots that led to an acute crisis in the country.
In 1808, Korol Karlos abdicated in favor of the eldest son of Ferdinand VII. While the Spanish court had been created confusion caused by the division of power, Napoleon, taking advantage of the situation, he took the young ruler captured and put to the Spanish throne of his brother Joseph, as the country entered its troops. Explained the French Emperor his action solely by good intentions, namely, the need to confront the ripening revolution. Thus began a bloody war in Spain and France.
This year Goya created his painting «Colossus» (1808, Museo del Prado, Madrid), which expresses all the confusion and tension that prevailed in society. Most of the compositions takes a giant figure of a ferocious Colossus, clenches his fists. Giant strides on Spanish soil, referring to the storm clouds. His appearance is a general panic. The figure of the Colossus, likely represents the ruthlessness of the war, bringing the universal ruin, destruction and chaos.
In the autumn of the same year, the artist leaves the capital and sent to Saragossa, already destroyed by French troops. The appearance of the ruined and burnt hometown deeply impressed the painter and gave him a new impetus to creativity.
At this time, Madrid reeling from news. On the streets saying that the French do not just want to arrest and deal with the whole royal family. May 2, 1808 crowds gather in front of the Royal Palace, the Puerta del Sol. They demand from the French evidence that the youngest son of King Carlos IV of the former, thirteen Prints Fransisko De Paula, beloved by the people, is still alive. Gradually, the situation escalated, flushed Spaniards rushed to the palace guard. They were met by armed resistance. Locals clashed with Egyptian mercenaries - Mamluks.
A few years later, in 1814, Goya painted the scene of the event on the canvas called «The second in May 1808 in Madrid, an uprising against the Mamelukes» (Museo del Prado, Madrid). The composition of the picture is very tense, it all mixed up - people, animals, the living, the dead and wounded. The intense red-orange color fabric perfectly conveys the atmosphere of social catastrophe.
Napoleon’s troops brutally crushed the uprising. On the same night, on the orders of the French monarch had inflicted unprecedented cruelty massacre of more surviving rebels. Hundreds of Madrid were executed without trial, the surviving evidence, many of them did not have any relation to the uprising.
No true artist or a poet could not remain indifferent, being a direct witness of these events. Francisco de Goya, too, failed. Six years later, he created the painting «The shooting of the insurgents in Madrid May 3, 1808» (1814, Museo del Prado, Madrid), tells the story of a terrible tragedy. The picture shows us a scene that occurred late at night in a vacant lot outside the city. In a gentle slope of the hill, a large illuminated lantern light rough, French soldiers shot captured insurgents. Painter presented as a faceless executioners, strictly organized mass. The center of the work is a young farmer, dressed in a white shirt. It is widely spreads his hands as if trying to protect his own body homeland. The rest of the rebels condemned to die, are presented in different ways. Someone meekly bowed his head, someone to challenge smorit right in the eyes of the executioners, the other covered his face, but none of them does not even try to escape. Background in the picture are the silhouettes of the cathedral, towers, houses, barely distinguishable from the darkness of night. The composition of the painting so expressive that it seems now prevailing silence tear thunderous shots. Grim and harsh landscape complements atmosphere imminent tragedy.
This picture of the artist sought to convey not just the cruel events of the history of Spain, to excite their audience, he wanted to portray the moral superiority of the Spanish people over their executioners, express rebelliousness of the national spirit.
With the advent of 1812, the artist suffered a personal tragedy, died beloved wife Josefa. The artist was very upset by the death of faithful companion of his life, because after her departure, he stayed only a single son, who had turned 28 years old. It is surprising that Goya wrote nothing about his wife and only once portrayed her in the painting - «Portrait of Joseph Bayou de Goya.» Judging by this canvas, Josefa was a simple kind woman. The artist, in spite of short stature and homely appearance was known as a lover of women, so can humble Josefa and did not participate in the social life of society.
Like any artist, all their joys and sorrows experienced Goya through creativity. After his wife died, he took up the creation of a series of etchings, designed to illustrate the work Nikolasa Fernandesa de Moratan «Historical notes on the emergence and development of a bullfight in Spain.» In our time, this series is known as «tavromahii» in her artist showed fearlessness person to engage in battle with a wild and ferocious animals.
By the end of the second decade of the 19th century, Francisco de Goya, sick, tired and disillusioned with the policy of the authorities of Spain, has decided to leave the bustling capital for the sake of privacy. He bought a large two-storey house on the banks of the Manzanares River, he was surrounded by great sown land. The new shelter, neighbors nicknamed «House of the Deaf», the artist has not moved a single, and was followed by his distant relative Leokadiey Vays, with his little daughter, Rosarito. About this woman’s life little is known. In Madrid, she was famous for his scandalous behavior, but a deaf artist is apparently not bothered.
At the end of 1819 Goya again fell ill. Leocadia Rosarito and cared for him, trying to brighten his grave condition. Due to this concern and efforts of Dr. Eugenio Garcia Arrieta, the artist was able to recover, and even returned to his studies in painting. His first painting after the sufferings, was devoted to his savior - «Self-Portrait with Dr. Arrieta» (Art Institute, Minniapolis) was written as early as 1820. In the center of the master he depicted himself, leaning back against the young doctor’s shoulder. Eugenio brings to his lips a glass artist with medicinal teas. In the background one can see in the dark room someone’s silhouettes. Colors double portrait is harmonious and calm. At the bottom of the canvas the artist’s postscript: «Goya thanks his friend Arrieta for the attention and care that saved his life during a dangerous illness, which he suffered at the end of 1819, at the age of 73 years. He wrote it in 1820 «.
Improve their health, Goya began to work on a new series of etchings called «Los Proverbios» ( «Proverbs»), published by the Academy of San Fernando in 1864, however, the well-known it became by another name - «Disparates» ( «Nonsense»). On 22 cartons Goya painted all sorts of absurdities and awkwardness - it was his own interpretation of national proverbs, which the artist has acquired a fantastic sound.
In the same 1820 Goya went back to the monumental painting and decided to paint the walls of his house. For example, on the walls of a large room of the ground floor the painter depicted a beautiful young lady in full height - «A woman in a black shawl» (Museo del Prado, Madrid). No exact information, but perhaps this is the very portrait of Leokadii Vays. Spanish woman standing in a natural posture, resting one hand on the high stone fence, which occupies a large part of the composition. Light black veil covering the face of the woman, gives the image of a certain mystique.
This mural was the most peaceful of all the work cycle, in which the artist has decided to reveal the hidden essence of the person. Works of this kind of art history until then never seen. In the paintings of Goya dominates terrifying, diabolical, unnatural beginning, sinister images appear as if in a nightmare. Perhaps, in their sleep, and I saw an artist Veree not exactly a dream, but in delirium. Goya himself in some letters mentioned that during the illness suffered horrible hallucinations, maybe that they found their way out into the «black paintings» of the artist.
One of the most striking is the mural «Saturn Devouring His Children» (1820-1823, Museo del Prado, Madrid). Dim lighting picks out from the darkness of evil, the body of the god, who in a frenzy of madness devouring own child, tearing his body apart.
Very indicative fresco «Pilgrimage to St. Isidore» (1820-1823, Mrey Prado, Madrid), clearly showing how much has changed perception of the world of the artist. This comparison is very bright because Goya in his younger years has created a work dedicated to this subject: «Folk festival on the day of St. Isidore» (1788, Museo del Prado, Madrid) shows one of the most favorite holidays of the inhabitants of Madrid. It is an annual procession on the shore of the Manzanares River, which showcases a large picnic with dancing. An essential attribute of the holiday was the drinking water from a source of medicinal found, according to legend, holy Isidor. On the canvas in 1788 is a colorful and cheerful national holiday. But in the later work on the wall of the «House of the Deaf» reigns disturbing sense of imminent disaster. On a dark and gloomy fresco on dry land wandering crowd of people huddled together. Their faces terrible grimace of pain, fear, terror, bestial rage and malice.
In the same vein, the work is done «Coven» (1820-1823, Museo del Prado, Madrid), although it is written in a light colors, all the space it occupied the same «ugly» crowd. In the center of the composition shows black goat in a monk’s robe. Around with eager eyes gleam insane heed the personification of Satan. Drawing a «demonic tribe», the artist emphasizes that people have lost their human form, so their faces are like animals muzzle.
All the murals «Houses deaf» have a strange and controversial, they excite and frighten. Spots of white, yellow and pinkish-red flash suddenly, snatching from the darkness of the individual images, that, on the contrary, envelop them. All fifteen scenes performed in a dark color scheme for it, and that the stories themselves extremely «dark», the frescoes were dubbed «Black Paintings.» They were on the walls of the house until the 1870s, until the new owner, Baron Emile Erlanger, a banker and a passionate collector, not ordered to move all the scenes on canvas. In 1878, he introduced them at an exhibition in Paris, and after three years of work gave all Madrid Prado Museum, founded by Ferdinand VII in 1819.
Moving to France and the death of the master
End of work on frescoes coincided with changes in the country. Korol Ferdinand VII in 1823 abolished the constitutional government, which sympathized with Goya. The artist, who was still a court painter, began to fear for his life, and in the spring of 1824 he left for France.
He settled in Bordeaux, in a small cozy house, taking with him and Dona Leocadia, along with her daughter. By this time, the artist had turned seventy-six years. In France, Goya worked. He created portraits of his family and friends around him, I mastered the technique of lithography. Around 1828 Goya created the work «The Milkmaid of Bordeaux» (Museo del Prado, Madrid), and a new series of etchings «Bulls of Bordeaux».
Not long before his death, the painter traveled to Madrid, where he visited his son and grandson. Painter died April 16, 1828, he was eighty-two year. The ashes of Francisco de Goya was transported to Spain and buried in Madrid Temple of San Antonio de la Florida, painted many years ago master.
All the creativity of the master has had a tremendous impact on the formation and development of the art of the XIX century. Just a few years after his death his contribution to the artistic culture was assessed at the European level.
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