Bartolome Esteban Murillo - life and pictures automatic translate
About the life of the leading artist of the «golden age» of Spanish painting, which made an invaluable contribution to the history of art and became the founder of the Seville School of Painting, not much is known. Born Bartolome Esteban Murillo, most likely in December 1617. There is a record of his baptism, which was held on January 1, 1618. To understand, under the influence of which the creative style of the brilliant artist was being formed, one must understand what Sevilla, where he was born, represented at the time.
Seville was one of the two ports in Spain that were allowed to trade with America (according to the royal decree of the 16th century). They brought pearls, gold, silver, leather, as well as cocoa, rare birds, chin, and other goods unprecedented in Spain. The huge shipyards on the coast of the navigable Guadalquivir River were constantly occupied, ships were built here, sails, ropes and everything necessary for the fleet were built. From the imported raw materials, the most skillful artisans of Seville (more precisely, its suburbs, Triana and Macarena), created magnificent vessels, gold-brocade brocaded altar covers, clothes for the clergy, produced and painted massive and heavy church candles. On the parchments of numerous churches, beggars, beggars, beggars and cripples crowded around. The number of beggars, homeless children and homeless vagrants was enormous. In the documents of the City Council there are many records that the poor were dying of hunger.
At the same time, Seville was also a major center of an all-powerful and rich Catholic church. Already in the XV century, the Spanish clergy was proud of the huge cathedrals, the oldest Gothic buildings in Europe. The monasteries were numerous and immensely rich, they owned real treasures and generously distributed orders to the best artists. Lush church festivals and solemn religious processions of Seville were famous throughout the country. This was the concern not only of the clergy, but also of knowing that the Dukes Medina Sidonia, Zunyga, Alcala, and many others who donated money to such events sought to emphasize their wealth and influence.
Thus, Seville was a city of contrasts - luxury and poverty, wealth and squalor. Even in the second half of the 17th century, when the whole of Spain was beset by devastation and impoverishment as a result of the economic crisis, ships from overseas were still coming to Seville, the pulse of commercial life was still beating in it, but all the lands of Andalusia belonged to the five most famous families. Nobles, so proud of the nobility of blood and who considered shameful any work, except for military affairs, church or court service, were increasingly involved in trade. The greatness of Spain is a thing of the past, like her dreams of world domination. In the Spanish art, heroic images of fearless warriors-winners and martyr-like martyrs appeared less and less often. Realistic art gradually lost features of severe masculinity and expressive character. They were replaced either by excessively exalted or soft lyrical images that can be seen in the works of masters like Madrid’s school, for example Juan Careno de Miranda, Claudio Coelho, Antonio Pereda, and Sevilla’s Errera the Younger, Pedro de Moya, Alonso Cano. In architecture, the pretentiousness of lush ornaments grew, and in wooden sculpture, the statues were often not simply painted, but dressed up in real luxurious outfits.
The beginning of the creative path
In this period, the future great artist Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born. Early lost his parents, the boy was brought up in the aunt’s family, the wife of the Sevillian surgeon-barber Juan Lagares. Early discovering the child’s penchant for painting, his relatives gave him to study the artist Juan del Castillo, distinguished by his love for the Seville novelists and Italian artists. But soon Murillo was left to himself, as his teacher left for Cadiz. Early biographers argue that the young artist wrote his works on small pieces of canvas and then sold them at the shipyard. This seems likely, since in the trading Seville many painters worked for the shipyard.
There are very few reliable facts about Murillo’s life. He spent about two years in Madrid (probably from 1648 to 1650), where he really could meet with Velazquez and learn from him the paintings of great masters in the royal meetings. In addition, a friend of Murillo, Pedro de Moya, who admired the works of Anthony van Dyck, brought copies and drawings from the works of this genius of painting from Flanders and England to Seville. Murillo mainly performed orders of monasteries, creating large cycles of biblical and evangelical plots, legends about the lives of saints and legends. In the stories «Worship of the Shepherds», «Miracle of the saturation of five thousand people with five loaves,» numerous scenes of giving alms and healing sick saints, he lovingly portrayed the poor in Sevilla: peasants, beggars, cripples. All his life he wrote genre paintings, portraying the barefoot children of the Spanish poor who are engaged in games right on the streets of the city.
In the works of the early period of the creation of Murillo (40s of the 17th century), obviously the apparent influence of Velazquez, Herrera the Elder, Zurbaran, Roelas and other masters of the Seville school. The artist also works in the dark manner of the caravagists, reviving their canvases with only a few spots in warm colors. Already in these years the young artist begins to be interested in the problem of transmitting light, making in his works timid attempts to solve it.
Perhaps the young Murillo painted the painting «Adoration of the Shepherds», now in the Hermitage. Before the young pretty Madonna, who gazes tenderly at the baby Jesus lying in the miserable manger, there are simple Andalusian peasants who have brought their meager gifts. He was a kneeling old man, timidly raising his hands and not daring to touch the baby, a sharp-witted, smiling old woman in a light kerchief, a young man in a red cloak and a shepherd with a characteristic staff. Their figures have been written rather harshly, and their placement is not too successful: they are staged «ladder» - one above the other. The dark coloring of the canvas on the left is illuminated by the light emanating from the baby. The gleaming whiteness of the sheet and the tender pinkish body of the child create the illusion of luminosity that illuminates Madonna’s meek face, her reddish simple dress, and flashes golden glints on the edge of the rough clothes of the kneeling old man.
In the 40s and 50s Murillo created genre pictures more than once, continuing the established democratic tradition of the Seville school of painting of the first half of the century. Such works include the Gypsy Girl (Madrid, Prado), The Girl with Flowers and Fruits (Moscow, Pushkin Museum), The Lousy (Paris, Louvre) and The Boy with the Dog (St. Petersburg, The Hermitage).
The painting «Boy and Dog» was written in the mid-1950s. We see a boy walking down the street. In his hand is a basket. The Kid, smiling affectionately, with a gesture of the hand demonstrates to the dog that in his basket, besides an empty clay jar, there is nothing. The child’s figurine was written in generation, but the artist managed to create a sense of the boy’s movement along the street, a clear understanding that the baby is talking with the four-legged friend on the run. The boy’s face is written with such realism that there is no doubt that the picture was written from nature and the artist knew this child well. The figure is outlined by soft smooth lines. Illuminating a slim, unremarkable face, a smile is felt under the long eyelashes of slightly lowered eyelids, through which the shine of evil eyes is clearly visible. Hair, face, hands, clothing artist paints a very thin layer of paint, brushing his long oblique strokes. The coloring of the picture is sloppy, strictly thought out and quite graphical. The gray tones of the sky lighten to the horizon line, to the right rises a yellowish wall with an inexpressive pale green tree. On this faded background, the dark sleeves of the jacket, the light coat of the dog and the golden basket clearly stand out. Probably the same boy served as a model for the painter for the work «The Boy in the Window» (London, National Gallery), in which he also worked out his distinctive color, continuing to experiment with light and color.
Success and recognition
As his mastery progressed, Murillo in the fifties of the 17th century more and more honed the range of golden and silvery tones that attracted him, trying to convey an air haze pierced with light. Career master gradually gaining momentum. Already in 1656 he was awarded the title of the first painter of his native Seville for his great painting «The Vision of St. Anthony of Padua «, performed for the altar of the Seville Cathedral. Everyone admired the virtuoso flow of light, to which the monk Anthony of Padua, stretching his hands, saw the baby Jesus coming down from the sky.
Contemporaries praised Murillo: he was called «the Seville Apelles,» comparing it to the great painter of ancient Greece, and even put him above Titian himself. At the turn of the 50’s and 60’s, the work «Annunciation» was created (St. Petersburg, the Hermitage). In it, we can see an even finer elaboration of light and color than in the picture «Boy and Dog.» The angel, who had just come down to Mary with the good news that she was destined to become the mother of the Son of God, knelt before her.
Together with the angel, in a modest room, as if the sky came in the form of a light cloud, washing out the outlines of the walls and enveloping the column with a haze. Clearly visible only a table with a book on it, a bouquet of lilies in a thin glass vase and plates of plain sex. A bright veil on Maria’s head, and her shoulders merge with the cloud. Very subtly solved the overall color of the picture. The main color spot was the scarf of an angel, carmine-red color, with delicate shades of color, easily fluttering against the background of smoky-gray clouds. The color of the scarf is perfectly combined with the purple-gray clothes of the angel and the golden-yellow basket standing on the floor, and even with a soft blue pillow in it. The second version of the painting is in the Prado Museum, in Madrid, but on it part of the angel’s foot and part of the vase with flowers are cut off by the edges of the canvas, which significantly distorts the composition of the work.
The painter, as the true son of his land, repeatedly turned to the image of the Madonna and sang the beauty of the women of Seville. Andalusians called their land «the edge of Mary the Most Pure». It was the Virgin Mary who was the patroness of Seville, as well as all the cities and villages of Andalusia. A simple people honored her as an intercessor, composed songs, tales and legends about her. In folk poetry, Madonna has always been a beauty with big eyes and gentle white pens. She admires people, trees, sun, sea and streams. In the works of Murillo, Maria is also always a big-eyed, graceful, gentle and slender woman, unlike the works of many Spanish masters who saw in the Madonna, especially the mother, with modestly lowered eyes looking at her child.
The most famous Madonna of Murillo: «Madonna and Child» (Florence, Uffizi), «Madonna with the beads» (Madrid, Prado), «Madonna and Child», second name - «Madonna with a napkin» (Seville, Museum of Fine Arts) and «Madonna and Child», also known as the «Gypsy Madonna» (Rome, Corsini Gallery). All these charming women looking at the viewer can also admire, and not just pray to them. The charming image of Madonna meets the artist in various subjects: «Immaculate Conception», «Annunciation», «Adoration of the Shepherds», «Rest on the way to Egypt», «Escape to Egypt», «Holy Family», «Taking the Madonna to Heaven» and many others, both written by the order of the church, and created for other customers.
Compositions of Murillo’s works, written by the order of the Catholic Church, are distinguished by a combination of the tranquil solemnity of the religious canvas with genre motifs that bring warmth and sincerity to simple human life. This is the work «Rest on the way to Egypt». Here we see the serene sleep of the baby, the caring gesture of the mother’s hand with an open palm protecting the child, the gentle gentle face of Mary, the reliable canopy of the tree under which she is resting. Nearby is Joseph, holding the mule. Lovely curious little angels, afraid to wake a child, stand, embracing at a distance.
The work is surprisingly harmonious: the ratio of figures and landscape, the smooth fluidity of soft lines, the warm tones of the red attire of the Madonna in combination with the dark brown clothes of Joseph, the trees, the pink calf of the baby and the transparent silvery haze of the distant gentle hills. Careful mastery of ordinary things - neatly knotted knots thrown on top of Joseph’s straw hat, a bottle in an empty pumpkin, proves to us how skillful the master of still life was Murillo. None of the Spanish masters so often appealed to apocryphal stories, like Murillo. They were interested in him no less than the classical plots of the Ascension of the Madonna and the Immaculate Conception, many examples of which can be found in museums all over the world - in the Prado, in the Hermitage, in the Louvre, in the museums of Seville and in private collections. Apocrypha are legends not admitted by the official church into the texts of the four existing canonical gospels: tales of the plays of the little Christ with his brothers (sons of Joseph); about the date palm, which grew up in the plea of the Madonna during her journey to Egypt; about the attack on the holy family of beasts and robbers (dragon, wolf, lion and leopard); the upbringing of the boy Jesus by Joseph; about the childhood of Mary and many others.
Characteristic for the Seville school of painting was the image of the Madonna, flying into the sky, accompanied by angels. Young Velasquez painted the picture «Immaculate Conception» (London, National Gallery), showing on it a young, earthly girl with a slightly cheeky face, embarrassedly lowered her eyes. As many art historians believe, it is written from Juan, the daughter of the teacher Velasquez - Francisco Pacheco, who later became his wife. The buildings and streets of Seville are visible below. Murillo created a new image in Spanish painting of Maria - a young, fragile, graceful Sevillian, floating in the clouds, smoothly and easily rising up. Such is the «Immaculate Conception» kept in the Hermitage. A dense gray cloud on which little angels are sporting, takes away the Madonna standing on it. The Virgin Mary stands on it, bending one knee slightly, gracefully, only by touching her fingers, combining her hands and gently holding the curving edge of her cloak with her elbows.
The canvas «Ascension» (St. Petersburg, the Hermitage) was written several years later. The face of the girl strongly resembles the face of Mary from the «Immaculate Conception», created by the artist for the Capuchin monastery and kept in Seville. Probably, both pictures were written by the master from one model. Madonna is dressed in a white long dress, at her waist - a golden girdle, a scarf, thrown over her shoulders, easily flutters in the air. Extraordinarily masterfully transmitted a smooth movement upward. The viewer seems to be standing at the bottom and his gaze follows the ascending figure. The angels play at Maria’s feet, and one of them, a swarthy dark-haired boy, tries to support the fluttering raincoat of the Virgin, flying up to her. The right hand of the Madonna is raised, the head is slightly thrown back, eyes are raised to the sky.
The impression of upward movement is not achieved solely by composition. Murillo shows this aspiration and a rich color scheme, and light. Right below - the total darkness is the abandoned earth. Climbing up, the background becomes lighter, more transparent, the tone is lighter, silvery, silhouettes of flying angels drown in their haze. To the upper edge of the canvas there are warmer golden tones, shimmering in yellow, pale yellow and pink halftones. The artist again writes with long oblique strokes, everything is smoothed out, gently, the wings of the angels are only slightly touched by the whites. Chiaroscuro is transparent, the transition of tones is invisible, and the contours of the figures dissolve in the air.
There is a Murillo and another Madonna - the owner of a poor house, the usual wife of an artisan. In the 18th century the Hermitage acquired the painting «Holy Family», a small format of which corresponds to an intimate interpretation of the plot. The carpenter Joseph arrived an hour of rest. Postponed the work, he took the child in his arms, his father’s face calm and affectionate. The child pulls the handles to the mother, who left sewing to take her son. The action is, probably, a workshop in which a green curtain separates the workspace from the dwelling. Golden soft light fills the whole space. The colorful range of work is finely solved: the yellow coat of Joseph and the gray color of his clothes, the pink dress of Mary and the dark blue cloak lying on her lap, the pale yellow scarf, the white shroud of the child and the pink shades are skillfully coordinated and deeply thought out. Light, almost transparent long strokes creates the artist hanging the edge of the white shroud and folds of the curtain, the weaving of the same basket, on the contrary, is written with short strokes of the brush. Simple farming of a simple carpenter - a workbench with a plane, a saw leaning against a table, and a basket with tools are located in the foreground, but the golden air of the room softens their outlines, as if dissolving in a celestial haze.
In 1660 Murillo became president he himself founded the Academy of Fine Arts in Seville - the free association of artists, which existed in their own donations. He believed that the artist must first study the nature and to follow the accepted traditions of art at home and imitate antiquity. His works are distinguished by the Bologna Academy works exclusively genre motifs, interest in Spanish national types and development issues of color and chiaroscuro.
Protector of the Seville Academy was the Marquis Villamanrique, for which the artist, in the 1665-1670-ies performed a series of paintings on the life of Jacob stories. Among them are the work of «Jacob’s Ladder» and «Isaac Blessing Jacob» (both in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg). This is a huge decorative pieces designed to decorate the palace. In both paintings the biblical story as it were pushed into the background. In the film «Isaac Blessing Jacob» scene involving the main characters allotted a much smaller place than the rest of the landscape with figures. Arch house, in the depths of which we see in the bed, sitting on the right shows a blind man Isaac. Next to him is his wife, Rebekah, Jacob and his worth in the lap of his father’s bed. This is the story of how the dying Isaac wanted to bless Esau - his eldest son, who had planned to convey the primacy of the family. Using blind husband, Rebecca led him to his youngest son, his favorite - James. All the characters are very characteristic of Murillo. Isaac - calm and good-looking old man, Rebekah - thin old woman with sunken cheeks and a sharp nose. This type of women in the paintings of Murillo common - that Anna, Mary’s mother, and the old beggar in the scenes of almsgiving, and numerous peasant «Adoration of the Shepherds».
Light and space
The whole scene is the blessing of the father of a son separated, as it were glowing from inside a bright red curtain of the bed of Isaac. An extraordinary sense of space in the room creates a clear transition between the dark arch edge and light tone shirts and Isaac pillows to light-bearing bright overhanging the edge of the curtain. Spacious landscape that extends beyond the wall at home, attracts the eye before the storm clouds, floating above the ground. Soft play sky tones infinitely varied - all shades of gray from dark to transparent smoky silver, which are lost in the contours of flying birds.
All shades of the sky perfectly combines with the brown-golden tones roads and shadows on it. Throughout the paper felt the strict order of a single composite solutions, emphasizing the depth of space. Road going to the mountains, are inclined in the same direction as the tree, the women’s movement, bent under the weight of heavy jug, a distant figure of the hunter - all reinforces the impression of depth. Painting is replete household elements - Containers foreground, pigeon house, the fence of the old boards, flower pots on the roof. We see dumps in some places the plaster on the wall. All this is taken from life and shows us the simple life andaluzstsev.
The product of «Jacob’s Ladder» is more decorative. Here Murillo beautifully conveyed in fabulous wealth dreams. The Biblical story tells how Jacob, fearing brothers revenge, travels to Haran country, but fell asleep and dreamed of a stairway to heaven by the way in which the descending angels, bearing the news that God chose the whole country, in the land which he sleeps, to give him. The action takes place at night in the moonlight cast by its weak rays of the river, waterfall, twisted trunks and branches of trees. James figure in pale clothes hardly noticeable. And here the painter are most attracted to the landscape and creating on canvas the magic of reality moonlight emerges through the dark clouds. Gentle fragile angels dressed in pale yellow, pink and blue clothes. Against the background of the mysterious night landscape, with a complex range of dark and lightening tones, their wings and garments shimmer bright spots. Dark gray sky written out typical large sweeping strokes. The leaves on the branches of the mighty old trees almost touched here and there with pink, somewhere red curling brush strokes, creating a false impression of colors.
In the heyday of his artistic skills, in 1660-1670-ies, Murillo sought poetizatsii images of their characters, what has repeatedly been accused of a deliberate sweetness and prettiness of the heroes of his paintings. However, these criticisms are not entirely true. In fact, the children we see on the canvases of «Ioann Krestitel with the lamb» (St. Petersburg, Hermitage), «The Good Shepherd» (Madrid, Prado), and others - are typical of Andalusia, they can still be seen in Seville and surrounding villages. Democratic orientation of the painter’s creativity expressed in the fact that he equated beauty of the Madonna to the beauty of ordinary women of Andalusia, and the beauty of her son, the baby Jesus, with the beauty of the street ragged.
For example, on the canvas, «Fomy Vilyanuevy Alms» (Sevilla, Museum of Fine Arts), we see a young resident of Seville, a pressing one hand to her breast baby, and the second leading arm half-naked baby is older. The woman and her children are no different from the Madonna and baby Jesus with the religious paintings of the artist.
The canvas «Ioann Krestitel with the lamb» little John - a beautiful big-eyed boy with big curls, chest presses to a fluffy lamb. Gentle chiseled hands and feet of the child and his slightly bent figure give it grace. A boy raised in the center of the composition, a big role in which plays the landscape reminds us of the film «Jacob’s Ladder». Murillo have a lot of children’s images.
The painting «Joseph leading the infant Christ» (St. Petersburg, Hermitage), written in 1670, be treated as a genre scene. Young bearded Joseph is dressed in a long purple smocks curly-haired boy, talking to him on the road. Urban landscape that we see them - Sevilla, its buildings and streets are not just recognizable in the works of masters. Murillo often turned to it were not included in the canonical Gospels story. On the canvas «Joseph and the Christ child» (Moscow, Pushkin Museum), we see how Joseph embracing Christ, amuses its flowering branches. Murillo always willingly wrote scenes with Joseph.
However, it was the artist’s other child characters - not beautiful and happy and exhausted, pale, sick and miserable. These children can be seen in the paintings on the theme of almsgiving. But Murillo tried to avoid unnecessarily tragic scene, they it is not too successful. In his work «The Crucifixion» (St. Petersburg, Hermitage), the body of Jesus stands out against a dark gray background of clouds, the Son of God is calm and beautiful. Mary, John and Mariya Magdalina, standing at the foot of the cross, young and beautiful.
Large-format painting «Death of the Inquisitor Pedro Arbuesa», which also belongs to the Hermitage collection was commissioned by the painter Seville tribunal of the Inquisition. Who lived in the late 15th century by Pedro de Pedro de Arbues Epila was inquisitor of Aragon when the Catholic King Ferdinand and Isabella, who founded the Inquisition in Spain. Aragon at that time enjoyed a number of privileges and some liberties. Severe statutes of the Inquisition, especially the confiscation of all property of the convicted, caused unrest among the nobles of Aragon, who, in the end, decided to kill Pedro de Arbues in the hope that the king will be frightened and will not send a replacement.
Supervised the murder of a Spanish nobleman Juan de la Abad, performers also become young Vidal de Uranso and Juan de Esperaindeo who wanted to avenge loved ones executed by the Inquisition. The murder took place September 15, 1485, right in the Zaragoza Cathedral. One late evening, when Pedro de Arbues stood, to kneel before the altar, de Esperaindeo struck him on the arm this wound, and de Uranso, warned that threatening and hated the Inquisitor wears under clothing chain mail armor and protects the head, plunged the dagger into his neck.
All the conspirators were subjected to torturous death. Pedro de Arbues erected a grandiose tomb, and later elevated to the rank of saint. Murillo knew all the circumstances of the murder and accurately reproduced them in the picture, but in spite of perfectly drawn shapes, beautiful transition tones of light and shade in a darkened cathedral, participants face is too dry and inexpressive, and poses too theatrical.
Work for Caridad Hospital
One of the most famous series of paintings by Murillo became a cycle of eleven works (1671-1674 years), performed for the hospital Caridad, located in Seville. Hospital owned founded in 1578 the brotherhood that was created for the burial of those executed, unknown and drowned. Brotherhood established a large chapel dedicated to St. George, which occupied a large part of the premises in the shipyard in Seville. Also in 1664 was set up a small hospital, the entrance to which is decorated with an inscription ends with the words: «... the poor house and the stairs to the sky.»
Who lived at the same time as Muirlo, Don Miguel de Manyara Visentele Leka, Order of Calatrava knight, reconstructed old and built a large new hospital, which treated the sick, bury the dead, fed the hungry free soup and provide other kinds of charity. Manyara itself was very interesting figure, however, is characteristic of his time. Playboy, playboy, party orgies and murder once he was afraid of preaching clergy, which threatened not only the afterlife punishment Domesday, but earthly court of the Inquisition. There is a legend that, Manyara dreamed of his funeral, then, repent of their sins and even be buried not in Caridad church itself, and under the slab at its entrance to all trample on his grave. Manyara Murillo offered to write to the hospital eleven paintings glorifying mercy. All subjects were drawn from the Bible, the Gospel and the later legends of saints. The most famous works of this series began, «Moses cut out the water from the rock» (Seville, Caridad), «Christ healing the paralytic» (London, National Gallery) and «St. Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, heals the sick «(Madrid, Prado).
Painting «The liberation of the apostle Peter from prison» (St. Petersburg, Hermitage), written for Caridad, characterized by an unusual interpretation of the black and white solutions. The artist set out to portray the most reliable source of light in a dark room. Radiant glow emanates from the angel’s head, illuminating the wall, making it almost invisible, as if imbued with the game grayish-silvery tones, interspersed with pinkish hues. To the left of the figures slumbering soldiers shows another light source - a tiny golden flame of a candle, illuminating the black silhouette sparingly halberds aleyuschy coat of one of the soldiers and the iron ring that is screwed into the wall. Here Murillo remained true to himself: illustrated prisoner - handsome old man with a calm face, not to express emotions.
At the same time, for the hospital Caridad wrote another artist, who came also from Seville - Juan Valdes Leal, fulfills the orders of Miguel Manyara. Creativity Valdes Leal was diametrically opposed to the art of Murillo. A talented painter, who owned great flavor, Valdes Leal preferred to write the gloomy picture, imbued with tragedy, mysticism and passionate dynamics. In his works, we see depicted in a fit figure, restless glare of light alternating with running like shadows, color combinations, though refined, but excessive cutting.
An example is two of his most famous paintings, written for Karidid - «Characters of Death» and «The End of earthly glory.» At first he painted a skeleton with a scythe, going on already useless crowns, books, weapons, extinguishing bony fingers fire smoldering candle, in the second he showed terrible picture of decomposition of corpses knight and bishop, with a mysterious hand holding the scales against them. Typical Valdes Leal and the work «Portrait of Manyara». Manyara is sitting at the table, pointing to a crucifix slightly theatrical gesture of the hand. To the left sat on a low stool with a book boy, dressed in a dark monk’s clothing. Pale kid put his finger to his lips, symbolizing thus the vow of perpetual silence and submission.
But the differences in the artist’s determined not only by their personality and character, but also the complexity of the controversial art of the late «Golden Age» of Spanish culture. Valdes Leal reflected in his work aristocratic reaction to realism, which included a mysterious dread of punishment after death. Esteban Murillo loved life in a variety of its manifestations. His work is associated with the best traditions of the national Spanish art heyday. He tried in every way to the true ambient transfer was in this quest is deeply sincere. Supervisory painter, he could not help but notice the contrasts of Seville - the wealth of the church and the nobility and the poverty of the people. All this is reflected in his works. At the same time, he was the son of his time, knowing that the conditions have changed, so poetizatsiya images and decorative compositions often replaced with depth of content and expression, characteristic of the old masters.
He died from an accident. Writing in Cadiz Capuchin monastery premises, Murillo fell from the high forests. In critical condition, he was transferred back home to Sevilla, where he died from his injuries in April 1682.