The fluidity of forms and the instantaneous movement of impressionism automatic translate
In the second half of the XIX century. the dynamics of life increased, which was facilitated by the scientific and technological revolution, the connection between the achievements of science and art was clearly manifested. The era of new thinking in the visual arts began. This was most fully reflected in Impressionism (from Fr. impression - impression). Its representatives sought to naturally and impartially capture the surrounding world and everyday life in their mobility and variability, to pass on their fleeting impressions. This trend originated in the French painting of the 1860s. Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Edouard Manet (1832-1883) made direct perception of life in painting, depicted instantaneous situations and movements, which created unexpected foreshortenings and sections of figures.
Later impressionism formed in the landscape: Claude Monet (1840-1926), Camille Pissarro (1830 - 1903), Alfred Sisley (1839-1899). Working in the open air, the painters skillfully transferred all the richness of the colors of nature, creating subtle in color, filled with light and air canvases. The artists of this direction tried to express not only what they see, but also how they see it. Therefore impressionists paid special attention to light and movement of air masses, changing the shapes of objects and transmitting the dynamics of the surrounding world.
Fluidity of forms and instantaneous movement was also perceived by artists from other countries: in Germany - Max Lieberman (1847 - 1935), in the USA - James Whistler (1834-1903). The work of the sculptor Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) is related with Impressionism energetic picturesque modeling and the courage of experiments («The Thinker», «The Gates of Hell»).
In literature, features of this style are found in the work of the Norwegian writer Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), who portrayed the personality revolt against the philistine environment (the novels of the Mystery, Pan). Prose K. Hamsun is nervous, refined, dynamic and at the same time lyrical.
In his works, with an amazing psychological accuracy, the flow of ordinary life, the details of everyday human existence, the everyday affairs and duties of heroes, their habits, and the characteristics of their characters are reproduced. K. Hamsun noted that one can write about everything that surrounds an ordinary person, but one should remain «true to reality,» that is, not only to grasp its general meaning and spirit, but also to reproduce its details in its works. The aesthetics of the vices of the great city, the recognition of the invincibility of evil are inherent in the poetry of the predecessor of Charles Baudelaire’s symbolism (1821 - 1867) (a collection of «Flowers of Evil»).
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But the extreme individualization of situations did not contribute to social generalizations, in connection with which we can say that this current was socially apathetic. Impressionists with their works sharpened their view of the world, and representatives of another trend - Post-Impressionism tried to tell about the world what people did not yet know. Post-impressionists, while maintaining the purity and sonority of colors, characteristic of the Impressionists, sought to create a more conventional, but at the same time more generalized and integral image of the world.
The artists Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890), Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) and Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) displayed the art of the world of their own soul. The art of post-impressionism, which depicts the dehumanization of human conditions, is more rational and regulated than Impressionism. The post-Impressionists did not have a desire to overcome social contradictions by means of art; therefore, it is not by chance that they «flee from reality» - either exotically, like Paul Gauguin, whose work is closely connected with Polynesia, or in his own inner world, like Van Gogh, who painted many portraits and self-portraits. Post-Impressionists have raised interest not only in the decorative-stylizing and formal methods of painting, but also in its philosophical and symbolic aspects.
The culture of the 19th century, even within the framework of Western civilization alone, gave the world several directions of artistic styles.