Soviet literature of the 20-30s of the XX century Automatic translate
It was very strong in the unstable 1920s. lyric-romantic stream in literature. During this period, A.S. Green’s work flourished (“Scarlet Sails”, “Running along the Waves”), at this time “exotic” works by K. G. Paustovsky appeared, interest in science fiction was renewed (A.R. Belyaev, V.A. Obruchev, A.N. Tolstoy). In general, the literature of the 1920s. characterized by great genre diversity and thematic richness. But the problem of the struggle of old and new life dominates. This is especially evident in novels gravitating to epics: “The Life of Klim Samgin” by M. Gorky, “Walking through the agony” of A.N. Tolstoy, “The Quiet Don” by M.A.Sholokhov, “The White Guard” M.A. Bulgakov.
In Soviet art culture, gradually starting in the 1920s. formed style, called socialist realism. Cultural works were to sing the achievements of the new system, to show its advantages over the bourgeois, criticizing all the shortcomings of the latter. However, not all writers and artists embellished socialist reality, and in spite of everything, many works were created that supplemented the world treasury of culture.
In the 1930s, when the totalitarian system was established in the USSR, there were changes in literature. The writers’ groups were dispersed, many writers were arrested and exiled. D.I. Harms, O. E. Mandelstam and others died in prisons and camps. And from the All-Union Congress of Writers in 1934, the official introduction of the method of socialist realism began. The work was declared the "main character of our books." F.I. Panferov (“Brusky”), F.V. Gladkov (“Energy”), V.P. Kataev (“Time, forward!”), M.S. responded to this slogan. Shaginyan ("Hydrocentral"), etc. The hero of our time is a hard worker - a builder, organizer of the labor process, a miner, a steelworker, etc. Works that did not reflect the heroics of working socialist everyday life, for example, the works of M.A. Bulgakov, A.P. Platonov, E.I. Zamyatin, A.A. Akhmatova, D.I. Kharms, were not subject to publication.
In the 1930s many writers turned to the historical genre: S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky (Sevastopol Strada), A.S. Novikov-Priboy (Tsushima), A.N. Tolstoy (Peter the Great), Yu.N. Tynianov ("Death of Wazir-Mukhtar").
During the Great Patriotic War, K.M.Simonov, A.A. Akhmatova, B.L. Parsnip created beautiful lyrical works, a poem by A. Tvardovsky “Vasily Terkin” was written. The journalism characteristic of the period of the beginning of the war was replaced by novels and novels (M. A. Sholokhov “They Fought for the Motherland”, V. S. Grossman “The People are Immortal”, etc.). The theme of the war has long remained the leading one in the writers’ work (A. A. Fadeev “The Young Guard”, B. N. Poleva “The Story of a Real Man”).
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“Zhdanovschina” in the era of late Stalinism brought to the surface mediocre writers: V. Kochetov, N. Gribachev, A. Sofronov, who in their books published in millions of copies described the struggle “good against very good”. The Soviet "production novel" was again raised to the shield. The pretense of plots and market conditions most clearly characterized the work of these writers. But at the same time, masterpieces such as “Doctor Zhivago” by B. L. Pasternak, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize, memoirs by K. G. Paustovsky and M. M. Prishvin, and the poem by A. T. Twardovsky “House at roads ”, the novel by V. P. Nekrasov“ In the trenches of Stalingrad ”, etc.
The death of JV Stalin and the ensuing XX Party Congress in 1956 led to a “thaw”. “The Sixties”, as the creative intelligentsia of the second half of the 1950-1960s was called, after a long break, they started talking about the value of the individual’s inner freedom. The years of the "thaw" became a kind of renaissance of Soviet poetry. Names such as A.A. Voznesensky, E.A. Evtushenko, B.A. Akhmadulina, R.I. Rozhdestvensky appeared. The merit of the thaw was the fact that the forbidden works of M. M. Zoshchenko, M. I. Tsvetaeva, S. A. Yesenin and others began to be printed for a long time. A significant phenomenon of this time was the publication of the story A I. Solzhenitsyn “One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich”, which talked about the Gulag system. But military topics did not go by the wayside. Writers who brought their personal experience and knowledge of the war entered the literature: Yu.V. Bondarev, VV Bykov, G.Ya. Baklanov.
Text writer: M.V.Sokolova