Soviet literature 20-30-ies of the XX century automatic translate
It was very strong in the unstable 1920s. lyric-romantic stream in literature. For this period, the blossoming of the creative work of AS Grin («Scarlet Sails», «Running on the Waves»), at this time there appear «exotic» works of K. G. Paustovsky, interest in science fiction is renewed (A.Belyaev, V.A. Obruchev, A.N. Tolstoy). In general, the literature of the 1920s. characterized by great genre diversity and thematic wealth. But the problem of fighting old and new life dominates. This is particularly evident in novels that gravitate toward the epics: «The Life of Klim Samgin» by M. Gorky, «Walking by the Flours» by A. Tolstoy, «Quiet Flows the Don» by MA Sholokhov, «The White Guard» by M.A. Bulgakov.
In the Soviet artistic culture, gradually since the 1920s. formed a style that received the name of socialist realism. Works of culture were to glorify the achievements of the new system, show its advantages over the bourgeois, criticizing all the shortcomings of the latter. However, not all writers and artists embellished the socialist reality, and in spite of everything, many works were created that supplemented the world treasury of culture.
In the 1930s, when the totalitarian system was established in the USSR, there were also changes in literature. Groups of writers were dispersed, many writers were arrested and exiled. DI Kharms, OE Mandelstam and others perished in prisons and camps. And from the All-Union Congress of Writers in 1934, the official introduction of the method of socialist realism began. Work was declared «the main hero of our books.» F. I. Panferov («Brusky»), F.V. Gludkov («Energy»), V.P. Katayev («Time, Forward!»), M.S. Shahinyan («Hydrocenter»), etc. A worker-builder, organizer of the labor process, miner, steelworker, etc. became the hero of our time. Works that did not reflect the heroics of labor socialist everyday life, for example the works of MA Bulgakov, AP Platonov, EI Zamyatin, AA Akhmatova, DI Kharms, were not subject to publication.
In the 1930s. many writers turned to the historical genre: SNSergeev-Tsensky (Sevastopolskaya Strada), AS Novikov-Priboy (Tsushima), AN Tolstoy (Peter the First), Yu.N. Tynyanov (Death of the Wazir Mukhtar).
In the years of the Great Patriotic War KM Simonov, AA Akhmatova, B.L. Pasternak created wonderful lyrical works, the poem of Alexander Tvardovsky «Vasily Terkin» was written. Publicism, characteristic of the period of the beginning of the war, was replaced by novels and novels (MA Sholokhov «They fought for their Motherland», VS Grossman «The people are immortal», etc.). The theme of the war for a long time remained the leading one in the writings of writers (AA Fadeev «Young Guard», BN Polevoy «A Tale of a Real Man»).
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«Zhdanovschina» in the era of late Stalinism brought to the surface mediocre writers: V. Kochetov, N. Gribachev, A. Sofronov, who in their books published in millions of copies, described the struggle between «good and very good.» Again, the Soviet «production novel» was raised on the shield. The artificiality of the plots and the conjuncture characterized the work of these writers most vividly. But at the same time, such masterpieces as BL Pasternak’s Doctor Zhivago, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize, the memoirs of KG Paustovsky and MMPrishvin, and the poem by ATTvardovsky «House of road, «the story of VP Nekrasov» In the trenches of Stalingrad, «and others.
The death of JV Stalin and the subsequent Twentieth Party Congress in 1956 led to a «thaw». «Sixties», the so-called creative intelligentsia of the second half of the 1950s-1960s, after a long break started talking about the value of the individual’s internal freedom. The years of the «thaw» have become a kind of renaissance of Soviet poetry. There were such names as AA Voznesensky, EA Evtushenko, BA Akhmadulina, RI Rozhdestvensky. The merit of the «thaw» was the fact that the forbidden works of MM Zoshchenko, MI Tsvetaeva, SA Esenin, and others began to be printed for a long time. A significant phenomenon in this period was the publication in the Novy Mir journal of the story A I. Solzhenitsyn’s «One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich», which talked about the Gulag system. But the military theme did not go into the background. Writers came to the literature who brought their personal experience and knowledge of war: Yu.V. Bondarev, VV Bykov, G.Ya. Baklanov.
Text writer: MVSokolova