Sculptural plasticine automatic translate
Plasticine, more precisely the composition, similar to plasticine, was first mentioned in the 16th century. in George Vazari’s «Biographies of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects.» According to the breadth of application in sculpture, clay takes the second place after clay. Its plastic properties are somewhat different from clay, which gives the sculptor additional opportunities for self-expression. Physical properties, its hardness, density, color, are set by plasticine once - during manufacture. Only during the work it becomes slightly softer from the heat of the sculptor’s hands. Due to the fact that clay is a harder material than clay, it is used to perform a small easel sculpture: miniatures, medals, genre compositions, large-scale sketches of large sculptures, working models of sculptural and architectural compositions, molding moldings for the production of small gypsum details for painting ceilings. From clay plasticine differs in that it does not dry, keeping plasticity and density. Therefore, it finds application where a thin and precise modeling of the form is required. Some sculptors use clay and in large works, mainly for modeling fine details, which in the clay quickly dry. But for this clay is subjected to additional processing. It is digested, i.e. melts to the liquid state, plasticizer and color pigment are added to it so that the clay comes in the color and average softness of the clay from which the whole sculpture is made.
Plasticine consists of beeswax, all kinds of fillers and plasticizers. Instead of beeswax, mountain wax - ozocerite - is often used. Powders of dry clay, sulfur, talc are used as fillers. In the XIX century. plasticine was made from wax and rosin (per 1 kg of wax 0.5 kg of rosin), melted in olive oil. The amount of oil depended on his softness. For the color, the necessary pigments were added. Later, other recipes from more accessible components were developed. For example, wax - clay, wax - sulfuric, ozokerite - kaolin.
The method of preparation of all plasticine in principle is the same. Melted wax or ozocerite is added finely rinified clay or sulfur and powder pigment and everything is thoroughly mixed. The resulting mass is poured a thin layer onto a wet burlap or thick polyethylene film and cooled. Cooled mass is passed through a meat grinder to crush the lumps in the melt of unmixed clay and pigment. The next step is to give the necessary plastic properties. The resulting composition is melted, for softness, machine oil or technical petroleum jelly is added, for hardness, potato flour or talc. The thoroughly mixed mixture is poured (see above), cooled and tested for softness, tightness, compliance.
In all cases, the proportions of the components in the preparation of plasticine depend on the specific requirements imposed on the sculptor’s plastic properties.
In addition to the described compositions of plasticine, which are prepared by the sculptors themselves, this material until recently was produced by the Podolsky Combine of the Art Fund and the paint factory in St. Petersburg.
To date, the most suitable for sculptural work are plasticine produced by Gamma and Lenstroykeramika.
Many novice sculptors, to facilitate the work with plasticine, first warm it in hot water or put on hot heating appliances. And during the whole session they keep a stock of hot, very soft plasticine. Of course, it’s much easier to work with hot clay. By its plastic properties, it approximates to clay and allows to mold large masses. But such prolonged heating adversely affects the plasticizers included in its composition. With repeated prolonged heating, the components «responsible» for softness gradually evaporate. Each time clay becomes harder and harder, and then brittle, unfit for work. To restore its plastic properties, you have to remelt it and add plasticizers. Plasticine, as well as clay, is an amorphous material, and in order for the sculpture to retain its shape, we need a skeleton, in the manufacture of which the features of the chemical composition of plasticine should be taken into account. Fatty acids, contained in its components, destroy copper and copper-based alloys. Therefore, it is not recommended to use copper or brass wire. For this purpose, aluminum or annealed iron wire is recommended.
Testing of plasticine
At the request of the publishing house «Gamma», the editions of the magazines «Art Council» and «Deco» by the students of the second year of the Faculty of Sculpture of the Moscow State Academy of Architecture. VI Surikov (workshop of Professor AI Rukavishnikov), an educational master-formator of the faculty of sculpture M.V. Medvedev and myself, the author of these lines, carried out comparative tests of sculptural plasticine of domestic manufacturers. The following samples were taken as test samples:
1) Plasticine sculptural AOZT «Lenstroykeramika«;
2) Sculptural sculpture olive by OAO Gamma;
3) The present sculptural plasticine of CJSC NPP POLYONP.
According to the testing regulations, each of the 10 students who agreed to participate in the tests was given an equal number of plasticine of the varieties listed and the task was to create a course task for a month (sketches of compositions, etudes, medals). The students had to determine which plasticine, in terms of its plastic and physical qualities, was better suited for various types of sculptural work and the technique of modeling.
The results of the testing (sketches, sketches, compositions, plaques, medals) were shown on examination examination and received positive assessments of the faculty of the faculty of sculpture. In addition, with each student who took part in the tests, an individual conversation was conducted to identify the pros and cons of each material. Students had to evaluate each type of plasticine in the following positions: plasticity - the ability to sculpt as large as possible; hardness - working, warm state when kneading by hand; stickiness - the ability of pieces with different temperatures to stick together; stickiness (to hands and tools); color, photogenic; smell; safety of the form; greasiness - plasticisation on the surface for prolonged storage; for what kinds of sculpture works. M.V. Medvedev conducted a series of technical tests on the reaction of plasticine on various chemical compounds used in the molding of sculpture. This reaction to various varnishes and lubricants, organosilicon compounds, a sharp temperature drop (freezing and thawing) when molding the sculpture in a glue-shaped manner.
The following results are obtained.
«Sculptural plasticine» produced by JSC Lenstroykeramika
Packaging is a rectangular briquette weighing 1 kg. Color is gray. According to 8 out of 10 respondents, this plasticine is of medium plasticity, closer to soft. With additional heating allows you to sculpt large masses. It is possible «picturesque» modeling of smears, almost like a clay. In working condition, it rattles well, although sometimes (in three cases out of 10) it was necessary to start the heating, especially when printing a new briquette. It is basically well adhered to the cold clay, only twice again the overlaid piece fell away from the sculpture, when it was pulled off by a stack - a loop when the surface was leveled. To hands and tools almost did not stick (9 cases out of 10), it happened only with artificial overheating. At the beginning of the work with a cold metal stack, a whitish trail remained over the cold plasticine: clay was clawed, but when the stack warmed from the heat of the hand, the texture completely corresponded to the intended one. The plasticine is pleasantly even gray. When mixing pieces from different briquettes and even briquettes from different lots, color differences were not found. The sculpture turns out to be an even color with chiaroscuros of equal strength. This is very important when photographing sketches and projects of future sculptural works, when photographs of sketches are presented to the court by non-professionals.
When the new briquette is opened, a slight smell of rosin appears, but in the process of work it practically disappeared or got used to it. In any case, none of the students had any complaints about this plasticine.
Plasticine well kept the form at room temperature (18 - 22 ° C). In the conditions of prolonged temperature rise up to 30 ° C (when students left their sketches on the shelf in the workshop for the whole summer), a thin glossy film of plasticizers protruded on the surface. Sculptures made without a frame, settled and swelled. This did not prevent the salted plasticine from being put into further work. It needs to be heated and mixed well.
Particular attention should be paid to the preparation of a sculpture from this plasticine to molding. The surface holds well the application of alcohol shellac in several layers. In this case hardening occurs, cementation of the plasticine surface. At the same time, nitrolaks slightly dissolve its surface. This applies to lubricants. It is better to use soap - oil lubricant, since kerosene - stearic acid dissolves the surface. Such precautions are necessary when making the adhesive form. An additional fixation of the surface of the sculpture is also required, since the gelatinous adhesive is poured into the casing at a temperature of about 50 ° C. Sculpture before gluing the glue is frozen in the refrigerator or in winter on the street. After such a thermal shock plasticine becomes brittle. This should be taken into account when removing the cooled adhesive layer from the model. With this plasticine to remove the adhesive form is not recommended. Plasticine is absolutely neutral to organosilicon compounds. Wikixins and molding compounds can be used without lubrication over pure clay. Also, without varnish and grease, you can also remove the gypsum lump form. This clay is suitable for all kinds of sculptural works, except medallion and miniature - jewelry, where you need filigree accuracy and clarity of lines and shapes. For such work, it is not strong enough.
Based on the results of the tests, this clay is rated for a solid «four».
«Plasticine sculptural olive», produced by JSC «Gamma»
Packaging is a rectangular briquette weighing 1 kg. Color olive in different shades.
According to 9 respondents out of 10, plasticine of average plasticity, is closer to solid. But the hardness of all briquettes is different. With additional heating allows you to sculpt large masses. In hot form, «painting» modeling with smears, almost like clay, is possible. In working condition, it crumples, although in 6 cases out of 10 it took an initial heating, especially when printing a new briquette. Cold clay is hardly cut with a knife. It is adhered to the cold clay, but the newly applied layer needs to be glued in the previous one. After such preparation, there was practically no withdrawal, except for two cases. Plasticine adhered to the hands and tools only with artificial overheating, when it was necessary to quickly lay large masses of material.
When working with a stack of scuffs and whitish traces did not occur. Color to the vast majority of students did not like (9 out of 10), especially since each briquette has its own shade. Before work it is necessary to pick up briquettes by color or to remel multi-colored to get uniform color of all plasticine, otherwise the sculpture becomes spotted and striped, and when it is photographed, a marriage is obtained. Wishing the manufacturer - to bring color closer to the color of the sculpted clay. During the work, the clay had a mixture of the smells of turpentine and engine oil. At one student this aroma caused an allergic reaction.
Plasticine perfectly retains its shape both at room temperature and in summer heat (30 - 35 ° C). The appearance of plasticizers was not observed, the swimming of the forms and the precipitation - too.
In molding works, alcohol and nitro-lacquers can be used, and all but kerosene-stearinic greases are used. Before removing the glue, a sculpture made of this plasticine is recommended to cool. Plasticine is absolutely neutral to organosilicon compounds. Wikixins and molding compounds based on silicone can be used without lubrication over pure clay. Also, without varnish and grease, you can also remove the gypsum lump form. This clay is universal, but in every kind of work you need your own approach to this material. At «juicy» painting it needs to be heated in hot water, and when modeling miniatures, to achieve fine detail and shape development, to cool. If it were not for individual shortcomings, such as color difference and hardness of briquettes in one box, this clay could be rated «excellent» (5 out of 10 respondents), but only «good».
«Real sculptural plasticine» produced by CJSC «NPP» POLYONP «
Convenient packaging: clay is cut into plates of 200 g and placed in blocks of 2 and 4 plates, blocks of 400 and 800 g, the color is black. The plasticine is soft. Easily crumples hands. Therefore, they can work, as with clay. He did not require preheating in 7 cases out of 10). Separate pieces are well fused into a monolith. Separation of pieces was not observed. Plasticine is suitable for modeling. The plasticine mass is dark gray. The differences in shades in different briquettes were not detected. The dark color brings some inconvenience: there is no play of chiaroscuro on the sculpture. In bright lighting, glare appears, breaking the shape and making it difficult to take photographs.
The smell of complaints did not cause, 8 students noted: «It smells, but unobtrusively.»
Plasticine holds the form well.
When removing molds from this plasticine, it is advisable to use alcoholic shellac and soap-oil lubricant. Adhesive molding is not recommended because of the temperature of the glue too high for this plasticine. With silicones and polymeric molding mixtures, no reaction occurs. By pure plasticine, you can also remove the plaster mold. According to the general opinion of the testers, this clay is intended for molding in a juicy, picturesque manner, where the movement of the smear in form is of primary importance. Plasticine deserves a firm assessment of «good».
None of the tested materials received the highest rating, not because the testers were very picky or tough, but because each plasticine has its drawbacks. The sculptor, while working with these materials, has to think not about what he wants to express, but about how to adapt to the material, what to do with it, so that he becomes obedient. Ideally, the sculptor must take plasticine and work, create, and the material - obediently obey the hand or instrument. There is an impression that none of the manufacturers were interested in consumers, what plasticine and what properties they need. For almost 10 years I have been the head of the Laboratory of Technology and Technology of Sculptural Materials, and this is the first request to us for testing materials. I hope that the critical remarks and unflattering opinions expressed in this article will help the manufacturers to improve the quality of their materials.