Russian and Soviet culture during the First World War automatic translate
The First World War exacerbated all internal contradictions in the belligerent states. In a number of countries, there have been revolutions. Russia was the weakest link in the chain of imperialism. At first the state in 1917 was shaken by the February revolution, as a result of which the autocracy was overthrown, and then, largely because of the total inactivity of the Provisional Government, the October Revolution. The Bolsheviks who came to power declared that the country would henceforth develop along the socialist path. But far from all in Russia a new world order was perceived. The Civil War (1918-1920) began - an armed confrontation between the new, Soviet state and supporters of the old regime. The ideological confrontation affected millions of citizens of our state. Very painful, these problems were experienced by representatives of the artistic and scientific intelligentsia. Not everyone could and was willing to accept and recognize the Soviet regime. 1917 led to a split in Russian culture, emigration began.
The construction of a socialist state presupposed the formation of a new mentality among Soviet citizens. To solve this most important task, it was first necessary to turn Russia into a country of universal literacy. There were societies «Down with illiteracy!» (ODN) and Likbez. The Council of People’s Commissars already in 1919 adopted a resolution whose basic position turned into a slogan: «Literate! Teach the illiterate! «. A wide network of educational institutions was set up: a library, literacy schools, etc. Teaching was conducted in more than 70 languages. In the countryside, since the end of the 1920s, the state began to create kolkhoz youth schools, which enabled students to gain knowledge not only in general subjects, but also in agronomy, veterinary science, etc. In towns, besides schools, vocational schools were opened, technical schools that trained professional workers. According to the decisions of the HC (1925) and XV (1927) congresses of the CPSU (B.), Compulsory universal primary education was introduced. Since the 1930s. unswervingly (first in the cities) began to introduce a compulsory universal seven-year education. The network of universities expanded. Already in the years of the Second Five-Year Plan (1933-1937) restrictions on admission to higher education institutions related to social origin were abolished. Pre-term issues, brigade forms of training were forbidden. In 1937, a unified certification of scientific personnel is introduced, a system for the protection of candidate and doctoral dissertations is established.
The most valuable monuments of Russian culture were taken by the Soviet government under the protection of the state: museums, art galleries, palaces and manors, parks, theaters, libraries, etc. The export of cultural values was prohibited.
The war with fascist Germany inflicted enormous damage on the domestic culture. Official statistics stated that during the war years, 1,710 cities and 70,000 villages were destroyed, 427 museums and 43,000 libraries were destroyed and looted, not to mention human losses, which for the USSR are estimated at 27 million dead. Fascists were looted and desecrated the house museums of Alexander Pushkin in Mikhailovskoye, Leo Tolstoy in Yasnaya Polyana, PI Tchaikovsky in Klin... From bombing and shelling, the number of masterpieces and architectural monuments that could not be counted was affected. Many of them were lost irrevocably.
In the post-war years the Soviet people found the strength to make a labor feat. Not only were they restored to the national economy in the shortest possible time (by 1948), but all appropriate measures were taken to build and resume the work of the centers of culture and education. Since 1949, the transition to universal seven-year education began, since this process was interrupted by the war. Since the early 60’s. the transition to compulsory universal secondary education for young people begins. In the 1950s. in the USSR there were more students than in all Western European countries combined. The number of engineers only increased 7 times in this period compared to the pre-war period. Undoubtedly, the enormous achievements of the Soviet government were the real implementation of the system of compulsory general secondary education and the universality of higher education, with free education at any grade, including postgraduate and doctoral studies.
The development of science in the USSR was so impressive that it made it possible to implement a civilizational leap and lead the Soviet state to the advanced level. Soviet authorities recognized and continued to work in Soviet Russia KA Timiriazev, KE Tsiolkovsky, NE Zhukovsky and many other scientists. A major contribution to genetics and selection was made by NI Vavilov (1887-1943). He was the founder of the modern doctrine of the biological bases of breeding and teaching about the centers of origin of cultivated plants. Biology and breeding was conducted by IV Michurin. He brought out more than 300 varieties of fruit and berry crops. IV Kurchatov (1902-1960) - an outstanding Soviet physicist was the organizer and leader of the work on atomic science and technology in the USSR. Under his leadership, the first cyclotron in our country was created, and then the first nuclear reactor in Europe, the first atomic bomb in the USSR and the world’s first thermonuclear bomb, the first nuclear power plant (NPP). VI Vernadsky (1863 - 1945) - scientist and encyclopedist were written works on the philosophy of natural science and developed an idea of the noosphere. The scientist believed that there is space around the Earth, which is one of the characteristics of the biosphere. The noosphere is the sphere of the mind, or the spiritual shell of the Earth. The noosphere - the metabolism and energy of society with nature can be controlled and regulated, acting as a reasonably coordinated with the data of science, the transformation of nature. In the doctrine of the noosphere, the foundations of ecological science were laid. A significant contribution to the development of geology and petrochemistry was made by IMGubkin, having developed the foundations of a theory about the origin of oil, the conditions for the formation of its deposits. The founder of the Soviet scientific school of physical optics was SI Vavilov. The Institute of Physical Problems was headed by PL Kapitsa. NDZelinsky and AE Favorsky created scientific schools and carried out basic research in chemistry.
For many years, wooden windows have been an indispensable part of the interior of an apartment, house or any other premises, while still retaining warmth and comfort. Modern technologies allow the production of windows in such a way that their functions expand from the isolation of the external environment to the functions of decor and decoration.
Theoretical works of AE Favorsky became the basis for the creation of the most important productions, including synthetic rubber. N.N. Burdenko, A.Bakulyov, A.Vishnevsky developed new methods of treatment, in particular neurosurgery, and new medications were created. Prominent historians such as BD Grekov, IA Orbeli, EV Tarle, AM Pankratova and others have come forward. The fundamental discoveries of NN Semenov, PA Cherenkov, I.E.. Tamm, LD Landau, IM Frank, NG Basova, and AM Prokhorov were awarded the Nobel Prizes. It is not possible to list all the achievements of Soviet scientists.
In parallel with the achievements of the world level, the opening of hundreds of research institutes (NII), there were negative trends. The emphasis on Russian national traditions quickly took on ugly forms in the post-war years. A campaign against «idleness before the West» was launched. At first, the main object of her was the creative intelligentsia: in the literature - the humorist M. M. Zoshchenko and the poet A.Akhmatov, the cinematography - directors S.M. Eisenstein, V.Pudovkin, A.D.Dovzhenko, in music - D. D. Shostakovich, V. I. Muradeli, S. S. Prokofiev, A. I. Khachaturyan. The campaign began with the adoption of the Central Committee resolution VKP (b) «On the journals» Zvezda «and» Leningrad «(1946), followed by a number of similar documents in various areas of art, up to the resolution» On the opera V. Muradeli Great Friendship «in 1948.
To establish «discipline» among scientists, «honor courts» were created, which were designed to condemn those who maintained scientific ties with their Western counterparts. The session of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences in August 1948 struck a blow at Soviet geneticists, accusing them of borrowing «unscientific» methods of «bourgeois scientists» T. X. Morgan and GI Mendel. In contrast to them was raised to the shield charlatan T. Lysenko. The jubilee session of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, convened in connection with the Academy’s 225th anniversary in 1949, was entirely devoted to the «evidence» of the historical priority of Russian scholars over the Western scientists in the most diverse fields of science and technology.