Kuinji. Touching eternity
Information about childhood Arkhip Kuindzhi very fragmentary and incomplete. Even the date of his birth is uncertain known. Survived a few documents on the basis of which the researchers called biography Kuinji day he was born January 15, 1841. This event occurred in the suburbs of Mariupol called Karasu.
Talent and Poverty (1841-1854)
It is believed that the ancestors of the artists were Greeks who lived in the Crimea in close proximity with the Tatars. There was a gradual interpenetration of cultures, erase the language barrier, there were mixed marriages. Therefore, it is possible to have a family Kuinji Tatar blood, although the artist himself always said that he considers himself Russian.
Surname "Kuinji" (in the original transcription Kuyumdzhiev) in the Tatar language does the name Crafts: "goldsmith". It is known that the artist's grandfather really was a jeweler. Sibling Arkhip translated into Russian surname and became Zolotarev.
The birth of a talented child in a poor family does not promise him any privileges. Father Kuindji Bagramyan, was a shoemaker and could not provide their children with wealth. When Arkhip was three years old, his father died suddenly. A very short time thereafter lived and mother. Small orphans left in the care of his brother and father's sister Kuinji, which in turn is able to take care of them.
With the support of relatives boy literate, engaged with a familiar teacher-Greek, and later briefly attended a local city school. Studies where he did not like and was given with great difficulty. Just at this period for the first time clearly showed his talent for drawing. Carried away, the kid drew not only on random scraps of paper, but also on the furniture or fence. This activity brought him genuine joy.
Poverty forced him to earn some cowherd, then assistant hlebotorgovtsa then uchёtchikom bricks to build a church. But the painting was still his main passion. It was not until 1855, when one of the adults noticed the boy talent, advised him to go to study painting Aivazovsky in Feodosia. Arkhip Kuindzhi done this long journey on foot, as pay the fare was nothing.
A new twist (1855-1859)
Crimean landscapes captured the imagination of impressionable teenager. Aivazovsky was absent at the time, so his copyist, Adolf Fessler, out of kindness, took part in the fate of the young Arkhip. He gave him his first real drawing lessons. For the poor and shy Arkhip it meant that he had a hope of becoming an artist.
He stayed in Feodosia few months. Aivazovsky daughter in his memoirs, describes it as a short, strongly curly boy in straw hat, very quiet and shy.
Aivazovsky himself on his return to Theodosius failed to consider Kuinji talent and did not engage with him. True, he entrusted him with mixing colors and painting his fence. Frustrated and oppressed by this turn of events the young man returns home.
Good luck with the third attempt (1860-1868)
In the hometown of Kuinji few months working retushёrom the photographer, and later sent in search of work, first in Odessa, and then - in Taganrog. The city met him more friendly. Arkhip employed in a photographic studio SS Isakovich again as retushёra. And he continues to draw.
Finally realized that to realize his dream in such circumstances it can not, Kuinji throws everything and moved to St. Petersburg, where he tries to enter the Academy of Arts. However, the fate he assumed a new grimace - a failure in examinations. A second attempt also failed.
But talent and love of painting demanded output and pushed to overcome obstacles. Kuinji persistently engaged in drawing and in 1868 exhibited his first painting, entitled "Tatar hut in the Crimea." This work gave him access to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he enrolled as an auditor.
During this grace period Kuinji creates an incredibly poignant painting "Autumn thaw", "Forgotten Village" and "Milky tract in Mariupol."
They are written in an innovative manere.Tschatelno selected shades very accurately convey the gloom and despondency bleak landscapes. Unusual colors and special shadow play very impressed the audience, but received a mixed assessment among artists.
"North" period (1869-1873)
Kuinji very attracted to work on the scenery. It produces its own special technique of applying paint, which lets you create visual illusions are so unusual that friends called him behind his hoaxer.
Inspired by the views of northern nature, the artist in a short period created such masterpieces as "Ladoga", "Snow", "On the island of Valaam," "St. Isaac's Cathedral in the moonlight."
Again turn and meteoric rise (1874-1881)
In 1874, life Arkhip Kuindzhi gets new content: the artist marries Vera Leontievna Ketcherdzhi. He was in love with her even with the teenage years. Earlier this marriage was impossible because of extreme poverty and the rich Kuinji origin of the bride.
Now the paintings the artist made wealthy person. He was able to visit England, France, Austria, Switzerland and other countries to explore the various schools of painting.
Entered a new, more joyful in life. And the artist's paintings have gained a different key. Written at that time, "Birch Grove", "Dnepr in the morning", "Moonlit Night on the Dnieper River", "Ukrainian night" made an incredible impression on the audience.
Bright, almost decorative play of colors makes the picture just glowing. Some even strove to look beyond the canvas, to ensure that no artificial illumination of the moon. Kuinji contemporary, the poet J. Polonsky, considering the picture in disbelief wondering: This is a picture or a window frame, which offers a landscape of inconceivable beauty?
Silence genius (1882-1910)
After such a resounding success friends Kuinji reasonably expect new pictures and stories. But the artist has its own logic - he stopped exhibition for 20 years. During this time he continued to write, he studied literature and worked with students, built a summer house in the Crimea.
Despite strong and resentful character, Arkhipov Kuinji reputed very kind person. He is constantly supported and donated money of his disciples and established the award to the best young artists. His kindness also extended to animals and birds.
From written memories contemporaries know that every day around noon, he went out into the yard to feed the birds. Already accustomed to this ritual to it flew sparrows, crows, pigeons and other winged brethren. Birds did not quite afraid, sat on his hands that only happy owner.
In 1901 Kuinji interrupted his "silence", presented to the exacting public with new masterpieces: "An Evening in Ukraine" theological plot of "Christ in Gethsemane" and a new version of "birch groves." They still excite and fascinate the viewer long riveting look.
He never exhibited many paintings became known only after his death. Great artist died July 11, 1910. The cause of death was a heart condition.