Life and work of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
The share of the great artist Michelangelo Merisi, known as Caravaggio us, dropped a lot of troubles and misfortunes. Fate was not kind to him. Whether because of his temperament, temper, lifestyle, whether due to talent, the makings of which were already visible to eleven years.
He was born, according to some reports, September 28, 1571 in Lombardy, northern Italy, in the small town of Caravaggio, the son of well-to-local architect Fermo Merisi Marquises Signora. In 1577, he died of the plague. In 1584 the boy sent to Milan to study the art of the then-known enough to the artist Simone Petertsano from Bergamo, who promises to teach him to fifteen years.
In 1590 his mother dies. Share with your brother, remaining after the death of his parents legacy that allowed Michelangelo to live comfortably for several years, in 1592 he left his native city. Gambling, noisy drunken companies soon shattered his fortune, and he gets to Rome without the money hungry and ragged. Day after day he interrupted work on lowly crafts in the workshop of a certain Lorenzo
Sichiliano. Of course, the young artist has exhibited the ability to do something better, this situation could not arrange. Frustration, poverty, Caravaggio lead to illness, he finds himself in a hospital for the poor. After his recovery, he takes to his studio Giuseppe Cesari d'Arpino. He is well versed in customer tastes, knows the market situation, oborotliv enough and he always has customers. The need for long retreats from Caravaggio.
But then again, something happens. Artist strikes a horse, and he again admitted to the hospital. After recovery, Caravaggio decides to work independently. At this time, one after the other there are the most famous pictures of his first period of creativity. "The fortune-teller predicting the fate", "Rest on the Flight into Egypt", "The Penitent Magdalene", "Young man, bitten lizard."
But, despite the fact that these works he announced himself as a talented artist, the audience remains indifferent to it. And only the fates decreed several works to get a connoisseur of painting Cardinal Francesco del Monte, who takes him into his service with quite decent earnings.
According to contemporary patron of the artist did not differ piety and chastity. On his peers "was never invited women, but there were dancing young boys dressed in women's clothes." Well, as Caravaggio directly dependent on the willingness of the customer, in so far in the ego and erotic picture emerges with homosexual tendencies.
Unfortunately, about Caravaggio remained very little reliable information. He was not married, but the female sex was not indifferent. "Shalunya living near Banks," "Laura and her daughter and her daughter Isabella, because of which there was a process", "Maddalena, wife of Michelangelo, who lives not far from Piazza Navona," broken windows jealous husband - all of this is only a small Notes biographers, informants observed in the order of the Inquisition for the progressive trends of artistic life in those years.
Thanks to Cardinal del Monte Caravaggio received the first major order for the Chapel Kontarelli Roman church of San Luigi dei Franceschi "The Calling of St. Matthew" and "The Martyrdom of St. Matthew." It certainly affected his credibility, the artist begins to receive prestigious orders.
Caravaggio in his work always had a passion for painting from nature. He carefully prescribed every detail, trying to bring it to the original. It introduced a new Caravaggio in Rome for the genre - still life itself. If out of his genre works to remove whether human figures, fruits, tools, remnants of dinner, musical instruments, all these details will still continue to live their lives, showing a nearly independent center of attraction. In addiction to the naturalism of Caravaggio had only one desire - how to more accurately reflect the object, situation, characters including the use of a mirror as independent of the retina screen image transmission and powerful light output in modeling objects. With the help of sharp chiaroscuro, which previously were not welcomed by masters of the Renaissance, Caravaggio achieves extraordinary stress in stop frame their work. It is very difficult to determine what is more important than the mirror or the light that hits like a spotlight on the most important parts of the body just pointing at the viewer the essence of the idea for which was conceived canvas. Naturalism of Caravaggio is not a soulless clone and visual transmission of inner emotions going on here and now. Images of his characters do not fit into the idealized standards of the dominant trends of Mannerism and then academic. He writes them with real ordinary people in the crowd, regardless of plot patterns.
But Rome is not required similarity with nature and the hill and the piety of the plot, action, and certainly not the earthiness of holy personages. Therefore, the church very often do not take the work of Caravaggio. He did new works based on the canons of the customer. A rejected paintings acquired know a lot about painting collectors. Ecclesiastical functionaries often refused his paintings. Caravaggio became a controversial artist. Michelangelo popularity grew. And in 1604 a rumor spread about him already all over Northern Europe.
Along with the increasing fame of the artist and his involvement in cases of scandalous incidents. More manifest traits of his character as a short-tempered, self-centered person living one day. One of the informants, observing the trends of artistic life in those years, wrote of Caravaggio: "The disadvantage is that it does not pay constant attention to the work in the workshop - having worked for two weeks, he is betrayed monthly idleness. With a sword at his side and a page behind it moves from one gambling house to another, always ready to start a fight and grab the hand to hand, so go with it very unsafe. "
Frequent trips to the tavern with friends, throwing a tray in the face of the waiter, noisy antics of the night, clashes with rivals, broken windows in a jealous master of the house, carrying a weapon without a permit, an insult to the police, the days, the behavior in jail - all of it gave him a reputation in the eyes of authorities as a man unreliable.
In May 1606 during an argument Caravaggio killed Ranuccio Tommazoni. The artist himself was wounded and taken friends from Rome. The court sentenced him to death, but for his capture was scheduled fee.
In 1607 he moved to live in Malta. There in 1608, the artist becomes a knight of the Order of Malta. Again, there is a quarrel with noble knight, whom he wounded. Then a prison, escape, expulsion from the Knights, Sicily. Caravaggio becomes aware that a wounded knight had sent them to him killers. The artist returned to Naples, he haunted by fear, he even sleeps with a dagger. But in the autumn of 1609 mercenaries, overtaken by Caravaggio at the threshold of the inn, hit him in the face with daggers.
Tired of all the misadventures of an artist wants to return to Rome. But there has not abolished the death penalty. He had heard rumors that due to influential patrons, including Cardinal Gonzaga, the abolition of the death penalty will soon be signed. From Naples he went to Porto Ercole, that there would wait for more definite news. But here, for the last time, on his head descend misadventures. By mistake, it is taken as a bandit and was arrested, but later released. What would recover their belongings left in the weather vane, he returns to shore, malaria infection, sick, and July 18, 1610 at the age of 37 years dies without knowing that on July 31 the papal rescript Caravaggio announced an amnesty.
Lyricist: Elena Ichetovkina, art
Caravaggio - biography
The great Italian artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was born September 29, 1571 in Milan. In 1576 the plague, his father died and his mother moved with the children to Caravaggio - a town not far from Milan. Michelangelo lived here until 1591. First written in Milan genre scenes and portraits are not preserved.
Michelangelo had a short temper. Fighting and imprisonment became companions of his life. In 1591 the artist is forced to flee from Milan to Venice and then to Rome.
Here Caravaggio (as it became known, as was the custom of the artists, the place of birth) meets with prominent artists and patrons of the arts, such as Jan Brueghel the Velvet, as well as studies of Leonardo, Giorgione and Titian. The first extant paintings of Caravaggio - "Boy, cleaning fruit" (1593).
Nearly died of a fever (1593) Caravaggio creates perhaps autobiographical film "Sick Bacchus." In the same year wrote his first multi-pattern, contrasting degenerate Mannerism and the nascent academicism lively realism. Caravaggio heroes - people from the street crowd, beautiful and cheerful. In the 1594-96 biennium Caravaggio experiencing a fruitful period working for his patron enlightened Cardinal Francesco del Monte at his villa (many paintings that have survived to the present day).
Despite the outstanding success in 1596 Caravaggio was denied the Academy of St. Luke. In the same year he created the first pure still life in the history of Italian painting "Fruit Basket".
In subsequent years, the artist receives many orders for the decoration of churches, but not all customers satisfy the work performed.
In 1601 Caravaggio finally removes his own workshop, his students appear. His "Entombment" (1603) copied by many artists (including the great Rubens).
Creating masterpieces alternated from Caravaggio wild life, fights, conclusions. May 26, 1606 Mr. Caravaggio was accused of killing a man in a fight. Outlawed, the artist runs in Naples, Malta, and then continues to paint. His life was full of adventures and here (in 1608 he even became a knight of the Order of Malta), but his health was already deteriorating. In the town of Porto d 'Ercole of Caravaggio died of fever July 18, 1610. Papal decree of pardon was published after his death.
Caravaggio - the great reformer of European painting, founder of the realism of the 17th century. For his method is characterized by a sharp contrast between light and shadow.
The value of Caravaggio turned unheard because none other than he was the first in the history of European art proclaimed the essence of artistic images vital concrete phenomena, people for their usual occupations, things that surround them in reality. Pioneering the concept of Caravaggio was one tough frankness with which the painting has become a literal reproduction of life. And creative installation wizard, as well as his numerous followers in different European countries, so-called "karavadzhistov" did not change even when they are turned to religious subjects.
The influence of Caravaggio on all subsequent art is so great that it simply does not compare with anything: even the influence of Jan van Eyck, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian and Michelangelo was not as comprehensive. If you name at least a few names of those who have experienced it a significant influence or even determine, comments will already superfluous: Ribera, Zurbarán, Velázquez and Murillo in Spain, Rubens and Jordaens in Flanders, Rembrandt and Vermeer in Holland, Georges de La Tour, brothers Le Nain, partly even Poussin in France. In itself, the Italian 17th century was not, it seems, no painter, not become a greater or lesser extent, "karavadzhistom."
Art no longer had looped mainly on the ideal, but is seen in nature, as in life itself, the simultaneous presence of opposites. In this sense, very indicative became referred to "Fruit Basket" by Caravaggio, where, along with ripe and juicy fruits and leaves are also present rotten and withered, leaving the picture is not proud affirmation of nature and life, but a sad reflection on the essence of our being ...
Lyricist: Dmitry Pankratov